1. In which phase of mitosis do each of the following occur:
a. Centromeres split and chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell anaphase
1. In which phase of mitosis do each of the following occur:
a. Centromeres split and chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell anaphase
b. Chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes prophase
c. The nuclear membrane disappears prophase
d. Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell metaphase
2. What does your data indicate about the rate of cell division in cancerous tissue compared to the rate of cell division in normal tissue? What data did you use to answer this question? The mitotic index shows that the rate of cell division has incresed in cancerous cells.
3. Which type of cancer is the fastest growing? Explain your answer, using your relevant data. The fastest growing cancer is ovarian cancer. It has the highest Mitiotic index.
4. With what you have observed in this lab, if you were to compare tissue sample from normal breast tissue and cancerous breast tissue:
a. Would you expect to see a difference in the rate of cell division in the cancerous breast tissue compared to the normal breast tissue? Explain your answer. Yes, cancerous tissue has a higher mitotic index than non cancerous tissue.
b. Could you make a prediction about the average % dividing cells in the cancerous breast tissue? Explain your answer. Based on the other tissue samples I would estimate a mitiotic index between 23 and 40.
5. Consider the % dividing cells in normal lung, normal stomach, and normal ovarian tissue.
Why do you think there are more cells dividing in the stomach and ovary tissue than in the lung tissue? The stomach has a high turn over of cells due to food, acid, and churning in the stomach. Ovarian cells are constantly reproducing as part of the menstrual cycle.
6. This lab explores three common cancers.
An additional form of cancer – Skin Cancer – used to be seen only in older individuals but is now seen in younger individuals, many in their early 20s. Skin cancer results from accumulated mutations to the DNA of skin cells, caused primarily by sun exposure. What factors do you think may be contributing to the increase in skin cancer among young adults? The increased rates could be due to exposure to an increased amount of carcinogens like UV Rays and toxins in the environment.
In 1555, during the Ming dynasty imperial Zong Shi, a royal physician fled to the city of Zhangzhou (Fujian province) because it is not satisfied with the emperor was very cruel. The physician was settled in a temple located in the East Pushan under Zhangzhou City as a monk. He witnessed the suffering and misery of the people due to incurable disease so that he felt compelled to provide aid to all residents. By using a secret potion from the palace, he finally managed to concoct a drug called “Pien Tze Huang” that have meaning only one tablet / pill (Pien) can relieve inflammation.
At first, Pien Tze Huang blended in very traditional. Potions are passed down for generations from one generation to another. Until 1911, a monk from the village Xiangyan Zhachuang who is also heir herb Pien Tze Huang realized how important these drugs, so he was trying to develop a more professional manner. Finally, in 1956, in the village of Xiangyan Zhachuang developed into Zhangzhou Pharmaceutical Factory Pharmaceutical today. Due to exceptional properties, together with Pien Tze Huang Chinese immigrants began to spread widely overseas Chinese, especially to Southeast Asia.
In 1960 through Pien Tze Huang, Hong Kong began to spread and used by the Japanese and in the same year formed the Society of Pien Tze Huang Users in Tokyo. When the Vietnam War-one, Pien Tze Huang widely used by the U. S. army as one of the drug is needed in the war in the jungle. Realizing the benefits of Pien Tze Huang in treating gunshot wounds, stabbed, ulcers and snake bites that can not be treated with antibiotics. In the early 1950’s Prof. Sheng Guo Rong never publish cure cancer patients treated with Pien Tze Huang for the first time.
Since then, many cases have been cured so that Pien Tze Huang has been shown to reduce the symptoms of cancer. According to traditional Chinese medicine, cancer is caused by the accumulation of vital energy, blood, phlegm and dampness that inhibit blood vessels that eventually form tumors. This accumulation is caused by a variety of pathogenic factors acting on the human body. Therefore treatment with traditional Chinese medicine focuses on relieving the blockage of blood, soften and dissolve hard mass.
Pien Tze Huang has been accepted as a cancer drug both in China and abroad, and have achieved satisfactory results in the treatment of cancer, especially cancer of the liver, stomach and colon cancer. Because it can boost immunity, Pien Tze Huang is very important in the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. Experiments conducted by the laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine, China indicated that Pien Tze Huang has real effects reduce the size of the cancer, relieve pain, reduce clinical symptoms and prolong life in cancer patients.
From the results of research and clinical practice of medical scientists today, Pien Tze Huang is also recognized as a drug that can prevent inflammation, reduce heat, neutralize toxins, relieve pain due to infection, can also treat hepatitis, liver disease, inflammation or swelling of the liver. From many studies it can be concluded that Pien Tze Huang is the traditional medicine of the most reliable and trustworthy benefits compared with other drugs. Pharmacologists also began conducting research on Pien Tze Huang in treating AIDS.
Essential ingredients in the Making Pien Tze Huang Pien Tze Huang in the creation, there are four main kinds of materials that have very important functions, among others:
1. Shexiang (Moschus) Shexiang is a sac located below the navel (Kista Subumbilikus) a kind of deer (Moschus Moschiferus Linnaeus) adult males. Shexiang has a distinctive fragrance that is useful to stimulate awareness, improve blood circulation, relieve pain, colds, injuries due to falls, and others.
2. Niuhuang (Calculus Bovis) Niuhuang are gallstones in the bladder and bile duct cattle (Bos Taurusdomesticus Gmelin). Drug ingredient is efficacious in removing heat, wind, cramps, sputum, stimulating awareness, relieve swelling of the throat, mouth sores, and so on.
3. Shedan (Fel Serpentis) Shedan is dried snake bile is efficacious in removing heat, normal lung function and liver, sharpen vision, launching the release of bile, cure cough and other infections.
4. Tianqi (Radix Notoginseng) Tianqi called Sanqi, which is the root of Panaxnotoginseng. Tianqi has a fragrance like ginseng and mostly grown in Southern China.
Tianqi has the function of increasing the volume of the coronary arteries, increase the levels of oxygen and nutrients needed by the heart muscle, relieve pain, injury from falls can also launch frozen blood. Apart from the four main ingredients mentioned above, Pien Tze Huang was also mixed with some kind of other natural ingredients that also have efficacy in the treatment of various diseases. Efficacy of Pien Tze Huang Pien Tze Huang is a drug which is produced from Zhangzhou Pharmaceutical Factory which serves to cure several diseases and maintain a healthy body.
The results of a clinical study of the set of Shanghai Traditional Health Pharmacology, Institute of Drug Research Zhang Zhou and Pharmacology Research Institute Fujian drug located in China (PRC) Pien Tze Huang showed efficacy in the treatment and prevention of disease, which we can describe as follows below: 1. In the field of healing A. Tackling heart abnormalities Liver function abnormalities: elevated levels of ALT, AST, GGT, Alkaline Phosphatase and blood bilirubin Hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B and non-A non-B, either acute, chronic or fulminant Fatty liver (fatty liver) Liver disease due to drug toxicity.
Alcoholic liver disease Hepatic insufficiency Liver cancer B. Tackling inflammation: Inflammation and enlarged prostate Inflammation of the ear, nose and throat Inflammation of the eye Inflammation of the mouth and gums Purulent inflammation of the skin, such as boils, abscesses, ulcers C. Burn Injuries: Scalded, touching hot objects Burning fire and sunshine D. Wound: Gunshot wound Stab wounds, stabbed and another injured due to sharp objects Injury blow a blunt object E. Eliminating pain F. Sprain, sprained G. Wasp bites, snakes and other venomous animals H. Cancer, especially liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. I.
Before and after surgery J. Cure dengue fever. 2. In the field of prevention A. Strengthen the function of the liver and protects the liver B. Preventing alcohol intoxication C. Preventing the emergence of anxiety, difficulty sleeping, irritability, indigestion caused by fatigue and stress. D. Skin care, especially to make luminous fresh face, eliminate and prevent acne and allergies to cosmetic ingredients. Apart from clinical studies have also been conducted scientific studies concluded that Pien Tze Huang is safe and does not cause negative effects, even at 40 times the dose administration adults for a period of up to 30 days.
It can also be used for all ages, from children aged 1 year to old age. Just keep in mind that Pien Tze Huang should not be given to pregnant women. Pien Tze Huang in The Eyes of The World Long ago, many Chinese migrants using Pien Tze Huang as the main drug to prevent infection and pain. They always use Pien Tze Huang on a regular basis in their life to relieve pain and fever caused by hepatitis, sore throat, burns, burned by hot objects, sharp objects stabbed, shot and bee bites / snake.
They are also accustomed to using Pien Tze Huang before and after surgery to stop bleeding, prevent infection and speed the healing process. In Indonesia, where many people contracted hepatitis Pien Tze Huang realize that is a panacea for protecting the liver and hepatitis. In Thailand too many cancer patients taking Pien Tze Huang because it can provide a greater life expectancy for their reply. In recent years more and more people in the world who know the benefits of this elixir.
As one obvious example, Pien Tze Huang are now registered and have been tested in the U. S. Department of Health as a drug that may be circulating and sold freely. Besides pharmacological researchers from several European countries, Japan, Korea and India have also done research on Pien Tze Huang and the results proved to be very satisfactory. The Chinese migrants often said that you should always remember to bring supplies are 3 kinds of airfare, passport and Pien Tze Huang when you will travel far. Our hope that Pien Tze Huang can bring happiness to you all.
Attention Getter: What do Sheryl Crow, Judy Blume, Suzanne Somers, Wanda Sykes and my Mother have in common? They are all breast cancer survivors.
Topic Disclosure: Today I am going to talk to you about breast cancer information and awareness
Preview: During my speech
I will discuss:
Audience Link: There is a large amount of men and women who are diagnosed with breast cancer everyday but they usually don’t know how it forms and ways it can be treated. Breast cancer is a very serious disease that shouldn’t be taken likely.
Even if you do not have breast cancer, chances are that you know or will know someone who will get it. After this speech I hope to inform and give you knowledge about breast cancer. I. A) Breastcancer. org (2013) states: Breast cancer symptoms vary widely, from lumps to swelling and skin changes. Breast cancer has no obvious symptoms at all until tumors are formed. Just as no two people are exactly alike no two-breast cancers are exactly the same either. Webmd. com (2013) explains, when a tumor develops signs of early stages of breast cancer includes:
Mammogram: Is a machine, which takes an x-ray of the breast that shows any tumors or lumps on the breast. Two types of Mammogram include screening and diagnosis mammogram. -Self
Exam: Which can be preformed in a warm shower, in front of a mirror or lying down. -Biopsy: A small operation done to remove tissue from the area of concern in the body. (20% turn out to have cancer when done)
Transition: Now that I talked about the symptoms and diagnosis of breast cancer, I am now going to talk about the treatment and side effects. II. A) Cdc. gov (2012) indicates, breast cancer is treated in several ways. It is depended on the kind of cancer and how far along it has spread. Treatment included surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy and radiation.
Surgery: Doctor cuts out and removes cancer from the tissue * Chemotherapy: Using special medicines or drugs to shrink or kill the cancer, Drugs include pills or IV. (Maybe both)
Hormonal Therapy: Some cancers need hormones to grow, used to block cancer cells from getting hormones to grow.
Biological Therapy: Works with your body’s immune system to help fight the cancer or control the side effects.
Radiation: The use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Treatments are a long process, depending on what stage you’re in will indicate how long your treatment may take. B) There are many side effects that go along with each treatment. Some people tend to get more while others tend to just stick with the most common.
Having more side effects would be something that is towards and individual, and matters by how strong ones immune system is. Some of the effects would be: anxiety, constipation, dehydration, dizziness, hair loss, fever, itching and etc. Transition: Now that I talked about the different types of treatments and side effects I will talk about the statistics and ways to lower your risk. III.
A) Medicinenet. com (2012) states that about 1 in 8 women (just under 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
B) Mayoclinic. com (2011) indicates that lifestyle changes have been shown in studies to decrease cancer risk even in high-risk women. Ways of prevention would be:
Summary: While being more aware of your body, you will have the information to prevent a disease that is able to take control of your body.
Review: Today I talked about the symptoms and diagnosis, treatment and side effects, and ways to lower your risk and statistics of breast cancer. Tie Back: While my mom isn’t a movie star, she fought her battles like one showing optimism, strength and elegance in her lowest time of all.
This year alone, approximately 1 million people will die from cancer. It is one of the leading causes of death in the world, second only to heart disease. According to the American Cancer Society (2012) states that 1 out of 2 men and 1 out of 3 women will get cancer. In a world as medically advanced as ours, one would think that we would already have the upper hand where this disease is concerned, and have a cure– but we don’t. According to “What is Cancer? ” website n. d. “defined Cancer as not just one disease but many diseases in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and form tumors”.
These tumors can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Crosta, P. (2006r, October 4) explains that once this happens the tumors have the ability to invade other issues and organs. When the abnormal cells form tumors and start traveling from one part of the body to another, it is referred to as metastasis. Additional symptoms may appear and will depend on the area of the body where the cancer has spread. For example, if the cancer spread to the liver, the liver may become enlarged and jaundice may set in.
Also the bones can become painful, brittle and break easily. Human cancer is as old as the human race with the oldest known documented case found in an ancient Egyptian papyri and occurred during 3000 BC to 1500 BC.. This report details 8 cases of tumors or ulcers of the breast that had to be removed by cauterization (which is a method for destroying something with a hot instrument called a ‘fire drill. ) Unfortunately, there wasn’t much that could be done, only pallative treatment (relieving of symptoms of a disease without effecting a cure).
It wasn’t until 1932 when Louis Leakey found the oldest possible malignant tumor in fossilized bones recovered in Egypt, and had features suggestive of Burkittts Lymphoma. (History of Cancer, n. d. ). The Medicine World website explains that Hippocrates (460 BC –370 BC) who was one of the most influential figures in the history of medicine. He was referred to as the Father of Western Medicine, and was the first to notice the differences between malignant and benign tumors.
He noted that the blood vessels around a malignant tumor looked like crab claws, so he named them “karkinos (which is the Greek word for crab. ) He used it to describe tumors that can progress in to ulceration. Hippocrates also believed the body was composed of 4 fluids; phlegm, blood, yellow bile and black bile, and black bile is what he believed to have caused cancer. This theory rang true for another until the 16th Century. Cancer was considered to be incurable, except for a menagarie of temporary fixes that included creams, ointments and pastes made from things like barley and pigs ear. (History of Cancer, n. d. )
During the 17th Century, the lymphatic system was discovered, and from this we were sure to gain extreme knowledge of the lymphatic system and how it works, and if there are any abnormalities. In the 18th Century, physician Jean Astruc and Chemist Bernard who led the research that would either confirm or disprove theories related to the origins of cancer. John Hunter, a Scottish surgeon suggested that some cancers might be cured by surgery. In addition, he discussed various methods of checking to see if the tumors were moveable.
One way was by checking to see if the tumor had invaded nearby tissues, if not then there was no harm in removing it. (History of Cancer, n. d. ) It was the 20th Century that brought the most progression in relation to cancer research; mainly because of the invention of better microscopes. Which were used in order for scientists to gain more knowledge about the cancer process. Not until the microscope was one able to see the noticeable difference between cancer cells and the surrounding normal cells. Fayed, (July 8, 2009) a journalist for the Medical Review Board states “each individual type of Cancer has its own set of symptoms.
These symptoms are based on original location and stage of cancer. In addition, to a more generalized set of symptoms, e. g. upset stomach, diarrhea, fever, headache and pain. ” To be more specific if it were Colon Caner that you have, in addition to the regular symptoms like fever, pain, and nausea you may experience a sudden change in your bowel movements, or the presence of blood in the stool. There are various risk factors that contribute to the chances of getting cancer. Risk factors can be classified into two categories, modifiable and non-modifiable.
Modifiable risk factors are things that can be altered and non-modifiable risk factors are those that can’t. Some of the modifiable risk factors are diet, body weight, how much exercise a person participates in, and the lifestyle choices they make, those are smoking, drinking and drugs. Non-modifiable risk factors are things like a person’s sex, age, or ethnicity. In addition to these risk factors, there are several viruses that have been linked to cancer, human papillomavirus a direct cause of cervical cancer), Hepatitis B and C ( which is a cause of liver cancer).
As well as Epstein-Barr virus (which has been linked some childhood cancers) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anything else that may suppress the immune system. With no specific cause for cancer, this disease does not discriminate, it will attack men, women, young, old, black and white. The American Cancer Society (2010) published that there are approximately 200 types of Cancer. The number one Cancer Killer in men and women is Lung Cancer, second in men is Prostate Cancer and second in women is Cervical Cancer.
According to the Health Disparities in Cancer (December 6, 2012), “The Center for Disease Control’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control monitor these numbers annually, and statistics show that approximately 225,000 new cases of lung cancer, 100,000 cases of prostate cancer and 300,000 new cases of cervical cancer are reported every year. Treatment options for cancer depend on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer (how much it has spread), the person’s age, status of the person’s health, and additional personal characteristics.
Unfortunately there is no single treatment for this disease and patients usually receive a combination of therapies and pallative care. Usually the treatment options fall under the categories of: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, or gene therapy. The oldest known treatment is surgery. If the cancer has not metastasized, then there is possibility that surgery can completely cure a patient by removal of the cancer. After the disease has spread then it impossible to operate.
Radiation is also referred to as Radio Therapy and destroys the cancer cells by high energy rays., causing them to die. Next we are on to chemo-therapy which utilizes chemicals that interfere with the cell division process. Treatments target any rapidly dividing cells not necessarily just cancer ones. This option is usually available to treat cancers that have metastasized because the medicine travels through out the body. With this option does come additional side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and fatigue just to name a few. Immunotherapy targets the immune system of the patient to fight off the tumor. Local immunotherapy injects a treatment into an affected area.
For example, to cause inflammation which in turn causes the tumor to shrink. The next type of immunotherapy is systematic immunothereapy and the treats the entire body by administering an agent in to the body that will shrink tumors. One example of this is Interferon. This type of treatment isn’t very old, therefore does not show a lot of statistics but researchers have had success with this option. Breast and Prostate cancers both have been linked to some types of hormones, so hormone therapy is designed to alter hormone production in the body so the cancer cells stop growing or are killed completely.
Finally we talk about gene therapy and the role it plays in the treatment of cancer. Its goal is to replace damaged genes with ones that work to address the root cause of cancer. For example, researchers are trying to replace the damaged gene that signals cells to stop dividing with a copy of a working gene. This type of therapy is brand new and has not yet yielded any successful treatments. (Duncan 2012. ) The National Institute for Health mentions another option, it is referred to as CAM, which stands for Complementary Alternative Medicine.
CAM is defined as a group of diverse medical and healthy care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine. Complementary medicine refers to the use of CAM together with conventional medicine. For instance, regular physician monitored treatment along with acupuncture to lessen pain. CAM is not a practice that all physicians believe in. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which conducted a comprehensive survey of CAM use by Americans, showed that approximately 38% of adults use CAM.
Complementary Alternative Medicine is grouped into broad categories such as natural products, mind and body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. (CDC, 2012) These include herbal medicines, (known as botanicals) vitamins, minerals and other natural products. Many are sold over the counter (OTC). In addition, “Probiotic’s” which are live micro-organisms, usually bacteria. ) They are similar to the microorganisms found in the human digestive tract and may have beneficial effects. “Probiotic’s” are available in food (e. g. yogurts) or as a dietary supplement.
Mind and body medicine incorporates practices like meditation, yoga, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, progressive relaxation, and qi gong (a Chinese meditative exercise. ) Next there are always on-going clinical trials for cancer. These are beneficial in testing new forms of treatment. One on-going clinical trial is THC Therapy. This form of CAM is becoming increasingly more popular. Unfortunately there are still more against the use of medicinal marijuana as a possible cure for Cancer. Regardless of what additional form of therapy you choose to engage in you should always with your physician first.
While doing this cancer research I found proof that back in 1974 the U. S. Government conducted a study in which lab rats who had cancerous tumors were injected with THC and others were injected with a placebo. The results showed those injected with the placebo all died from their cancerous tumors and the ones given the THC treatments had their tumors disappear completely or substantially shrink after a few treatments. Shortly after this study the U. S. Government patent’s the rights to medical marijuana. Maybe closer to a cure than we are aware of.
With all that we have learned about cancer thus far and everything we know we will learn, we can rest assured that the possibility for a cure is there. Yet unfortunately until then we will endure an increase in cancer immortality statistics. We live in a world that is so scientifically advanced how could we not find a cure for Cancer—The Silent Killer.
Clavicles are two tubular bones located above the first rib and connecting the upper limbs with the ribs and rest of the body. Bones provide the necessary range of movement and transmission of neuromuscular control from the hands to the axial skeleton. Collarbone covers the cavity between the arm and the neck, where vital anatomical structures pass.
If you experience pain in the collarbone or between the bones do not tolerate it and seek for urgent medical aid.
The position of the collarbone makes it predispose to breaking in case of extreme strain against the shoulder. Fractures of the clavicle occur frequently and constitute about 15% of all bone fractures.
Often patients complain of pain or discomfort in the left or right clavicle or in the shoulder joint. The prevalent factors of the collar bone pain are the bumps in the clavicle or the sternum, falling on the outstretched hand/arm resulting in fracture. Every so often the fracture of clavicle occurs in consequence of a car accident, sport injury or birth trauma. In some cases, the cause of a clavicle fracture is a sharp contraction of muscles. Painful sensations are associated with:
When the physician checks the patient, he might find that the shape of the collarbone has changed. The shoulder on the injured side is lower than on the healthy one. The patient holds up the injured limb with his elbow or forearm of a healthy hand.
To confirm fractures of the clavicle and set up a treatment plan the patient should undergo the X-ray examination. It will indicate the location and measures of the break, whether the joints have been affected. The radiologic investigation will also show the extent of operation if needed.
For a simple fracture, a patient is ought to keep the arm in rest and immobilized for 3-7 weeks. A shoulder brace helps the bones to heal in its correct position.
For a compound fracture or to fasten multiple framesets surgery is required. The bone is cemented by a metal structure, the choice of which is determined by the character of the fracture.
The acromial extremity of clavicle is dislocated at most. Injury occurs when you fall on your shoulder or as a result of a punch in your collarbone or shoulder. The dislocation might result in ligament rupture, since fiber bands join the clavicle with the scapula.
The patient may be assigned additional X-ray examination directly in the anterior and posterior projection to confirm the final diagnosis.
The tactics of treatment are determined by the severity of the dislocation. Conservative treatment includes immobilizing the arm with a kerchief bandage for 2-4 weeks, until the pain disappears. In addition to immobilizing a hand with a bandage dressing to relieve pain, conservative treatment sometimes involves wearing a special clavic at the end that presses the acromial end of the clavicle with enough power to correct it, but certainly not so much to cause pain or damage. Later rehabilitation is aimed at restoring mobility and strength of the hand. Some types of dislocations require surgical treatment.
Sleeping on the side puts extreme pressure on the left or right clavicle. This might trigger the collarbone pain. To avoid the discomfort change the sleeping habits.
Impairments of the vertebral column are frequently bound to the nerve compression. This may lead to adverse neuromuscular effect, abnormal sensation, clavicle pain and movement disorders.
The key clinical features of cervical osteochondrosis:
At the initial stages of the disease the treatment of the cervical osteochondrosis include drugs, therapeutic exercise, massage, physiotherapy, cervical collar. The last stage – if there is a serious destruction of the osteochondral structures, the surgical intervention might be beneficial.
Pain under the collarbone on might be caused by rib-tip syndrome or the insult of the brachial plexus. Pains might be aching, blunt, acute, burning, or even appear periodically in the form of shoots. The muscle spasms provoke sweating and skin redness. Deep breathing provokes severe collar bone pain.
For the treatment of brachialgia – rest, therapeutic exercises, massages and NSAIDs are used.
The referred pain in the right collarbones might trouble due to disorders of the liver or gallbladder. Pathological processes in the stomach and pancreas might trigger soreness in the left collarbone. Angina pectoris and heart attack burst acute pain radiating to the left collarbone.
Diagnostic producers and treatment are determined by the exact reason of the collarbone pain.
Bone marrow inflammation after injuries and operations makes 6.5% of all diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Clinical hints include:
Treatment includes long-term of antibiotics, drainage or the injury and the immobilization of the infected shoulder.
The collarbone pain might be the result of metastasis in the bone or nearby lymph nodes. Radiation therapy and surgery might be beneficial.
The disorder occurs due to the compression in the interstitial space of the nerves of the brachial plexus and subclavian arteries and veins. Edema, cyanosis and pain in the upper limb while moving or at rest allow to suspect the syndrome.
Triggers of thoracic outlet syndrome:
Physical examination includes the evaluation of joint mobility, X-rays, ultrasonography, and MRI scans to define damaged nerves or blood vessels.
Treatment plan includes physical therapy to improve the strength and plasticity of your joints and muscles and plasticity. In severe cases, surgery is advised to remove extra ribs or to repair damaged blood vessels.
Collarbone pain might be treated with the RICE method at home:
See the doctor as soon as possible if the pain troubles you more than a day or if it worsens. If you see any changes in the position of your clavicle or shoulder, seek medical attention.
Newly born babies are dependent on parents or carers to keep them safe, make sure they are fed, bathed and warm. Infants also depend on parents and carers to make available to speak to and give them encouragement in order to persuade intellectual development. Intellectual stimulation will place the basis for the development of a child’s self-image. Social and emotional needs Infants need to make safe and steady relations with their carers throughout the first year of life. Also making devoted attachment, this procedure is called bonding. If there is a relationship between the carer and the child, this may end to letdown to bond or make a safe attachment in future relationships. Having a loving bond with parents or carer in infancy may be crucial in order to allow the expansion of self-esteem.
Childhood Physical and Intellectual needs As children grow up they improve a series of skills like their body skills (Example: Running and swimming), their charisma, social, creativity, and logic skills. As children new skills, children enjoy doing activities by themselves they become more independent. Children will need useful chances to learn and develop. A child’s personality will begin to expand from communication with other people throughout this stage of his/her life.
Social and emotional needs Children are still dependent on adults to provide a steady, loving habitat for them and even though children may discover along with research, carers often need to direct and control what they do. Grown-up carers will need to supply for the young one’s physical needs also form physically and emotionally secure surroundings for them. All through primary socialisation, children should sense they fit in to a family or group, and they will have a need to feel loved and included in relations throughout this stage.
Adolescence Physical and intellectual needs Young people increase a growing level of ability and knowledge as they develop towards adulthood. Care needs will consist of good educational opportunities to expand sensible and intellectual abilities. Social and emotional needs They require belonging to a family or care group may still be significant; adolescents will be gradually more apprehensive to blend in with groups of their own age. Adolescents frequently duplicate each other’s technique of garments and appearance. Adolescent will be capable of making independent choices regarding physical needs also deciding their own acquaintance groups and lifestyle. Mutually self-image and self esteem are powerfully influenced by social and learning experiences at this period.
Adults Physical and intellectual needs Many adults obtain practical help and support because they cannot survive entirely independent lives. Adults with knowledge difficulties may maintain to want support in order to make suitable conclusions. Adult with physical disabilities may require a variety of physical and practical care, such as supporting with mobility, cooking and dressing. Social and emotional needs Service users will also require feeling secure, incorporated and valued. The worth of an adult person’s personality and self-worth will be influenced by the way other citizens treat them.
Older adults Physical and intellectual needs Numerous elder service users require help with physical care such as getting bathed and dressed. Social and emotional needs Older adults’ service users might be at jeopardy of not being treated with dignity and respect. A quantity of older adults may have particular wants for encouraging stimulation and relations. An individual’s appearances and self-worth will be influenced by the value of the care that they are given.
The final stages of life Physical needs When people are dying, they will frequently contain difficult physical needs for comfort, for instance pain relief, keeping the mouth moist, and so on. Social and emotional needs People in the ultimate periods of life might be nervous, and will be in need of emotional support. They will normally want to see friends and relatives, because the need to belong and fit in is very vital. People from time to time need to make sense of their lives and they may benefit from psychotherapy to allow them to manage. The wants to feel that life has had a value may represent a self-esteem need for many people.
It is a fact that shortness of breath or other breathing difficulties are very common. A lot of patients have difficulty breathing even when lying down, or difficulty breathing after eating. It is known as a distressing sensation when more efforts than usual are needed to breathe. People who suffer from shortness of breath also known as dyspnea often feel an intense tightening in their chest. This state is called the air hunger. At the same time, suffocation and feeling of panic are often experienced by patients as well. It should be indicated that the ongoing breathing issues like this can serve as a symptom of an underlying chronic condition, including obesity, lung, or heart disease.
People often deal with breathing difficulties, and this is the common part of their everyday life. A lot of patients indicate that they experience difficulty breathing at night, others say that they feel difficulty breathing through nose. Such issues are considered as some of the most common reasons for people to attend hospital emergency rooms. Other symptoms that are widespread among people who suffer from severe breathing difficulties include gasping, rib retractions, cyanosis, a rapid respiratory and heart rate, wheezing, and nasal flaring. Individuals can feel their feet and hands turn bluish due to lack of oxygen. Moreover, the patients with severe breathing issues sometimes use their chest and neck muscles to breathe. Likewise, shortness of breath in their situation can be closely connected with bloody sputum, dizziness, neck pain, fainting, cough, chest injury, inhalation (pleurisy), and anxiousness.
A lot of factors that cause shortness of breath are associated with chronic cardiopulmonary conditions, including heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, heart diseases, and a wide range of psychological conditions that result in panic attacks and anxiety. Moreover, sedentary lifestyle and obesity have a negative impact on the health of a person, also leading to shortness of breath.
The list of factors that can result in shortness of breath is very long. It includes deconditioning or the lack of fitness. When the blood of a human does not extract oxygen efficiently, people eventually get exhausted very fast. Another cause is obesity as this condition puts too much pressure on the lungs. A lot of overweight people experience heart rhythm problems throughout their life. The irregular heartbeat can make the heart work worse and eventually, oxygen won’t be pumped into the body effectively. Other common causes of shortness of breath involve sudden blood loss, low blood pressure, interstitial lung disease, and anaemia.
A lot of breathing issues connected the lung condition asthma make people visit hospital very often. Among patients suffering from asthma, various breathing difficulties come along with a dry, nonproductive cough, tightness in the chest, and wheezing. The latter is a condition when people are making a high-pitched sound as they breathe, especially when they exhale. It is also critical to add that the main symptoms of asthma can be treated with inhalers such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids. However, the most severe asthma cases should be analyzed in details and can require oral steroids.
Cough difficulty breathing is also very common among people of all ages. In case the person suddenly feels that it’s getting harder to breathe, but they don’t have any underlying conditions, they have to stay calm and try to detect the reason. Moreover, the causes that trigger acute breathing issues can help to detect the underlying factors. For instance, various types of allergies, including pollen, dander, or mould ones, can also result in shortness of breath due to the pollutants and dust in the air.
A lot of people experience difficulties in breathing when they are exerting themselves physically or when they exercise. It is better for them to slow down and gradually stop moving at all and rest. However, it is critical to remember that stopping too fast or immediately can be very harmful and can even result in deaths. That is why when people feel shortness of breath, they need to try and relax their muscles. They should do their best not to panic and find out the causes of such issues. They can be choking, or they can experience blockage of the air passages in their throat, mouth, or nose. However, if they feel that their breathing difficulties do not stop and only get worse, they need to visit the hospital or contact the doctor as soon as possible.
Also, it is critical to know the ways to avoid the factors that lead to breathing problems. First and foremost, it is essential to stop smoking. As soon as a person quits smoking, the risk of lung and heart diseases for him or her begins to decrease, even when he or she had been smoking for the whole life. Moreover, it is important to try avoiding exposure to pollutants as much as possible. It is better not to breath environmental toxins and different allergens. In addition to this, it is highly recommended to lose weight if the person is obese. It is fundamental to walk on foot more often.
People should consider having an action plan. They need to consult their doctors to understand what to do if their symptoms become worse. In other words, they have to start taking care of themselves and get the treatment if needed, especially if they have some underlying medical conditions. Overall, every time a person has shortness of breath, they need to know what to do and how to manage their symptoms.
The effect of acute exercise on the Musculoskeletal, Energy, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Andrew White
There is an increase in blood supply as your body is working overtime. The blood supply has to increase because it has to go to the parts in your body which you are exercising the most e.g. If you are taking a run, the blood supply will increase because your legs will need more energy, therefore there will be more blood circulating your legs than normal because you are overworking them. Your muscles and all your body organs need more energy and oxygen; this is because your body is working more than usual. Your body needs to do many things such as sweat, which helps you cool down, and to get energy to all of your cells in your body to help you carry on exercising, if your body didn’t do this, you wouldn’t be able to carry on exercising.
During acute exercise your muscle pliability increases which allows a greater range of movement which helps reduce injury. Acute exercise will cause muscle fibre micro tears. This is generally known as micro-trauma. The myosin heads and the actin filaments will be pulled from the myofibrils. This damage will cause a release of chemicals that cause the soreness after your period of exercise. The chemicals released also stimulate repair and growth in the area to rebuild the tears in the muscle.
Energy systems response to acute exercise happens when the exercise is a high intensity, which is too much for the cardiovascular and respiratory system to deal with. The first response is to use the creatine phosphate energy system. This works in the fast-twitch muscle fibre of the muscles high energy creatine phosphate compounds which are able to break down extremely quickly to create large amounts of ATP. ATP is where we get the energy from to continue and this system only works for the first 10 to 20 seconds of exercise with 100% effort.
It is likely that the lactic acid system would provide energy at the start of any activity, even if the intensity is not enough for the aerobic system. If you go out on a jog, most of this is powered by the aerobic system, but the start of the jog it needs to create ATP so that the heart and lungs have enough oxygen and can saturate the blood before the aerobic system can kick in. When the heart and lungs have caught up with the movement of the activity and the intensity is low enough, then the aerobic energy system can fuel the body.
The energy systems all work together to produce energy; however, what we are doing determines which energy system supplies the majority of the ATP. The energy continuum highlights which energy systems are producing the most amount of energy at different stages of an activity. At rest, nearly all of our energy is provided by the aerobic energy system; then, if we suddenly start to exercise, we need more ATP than the aerobic energy system can supply, so the phosphocreatine and lactic acid energy systems supply the ATP.
In some sport , the energy supply comes from all three energy systems at different points – for example, in football, when you are jogging slowly, the aerobic energy is used; for a short sprint to get to the ball, the phosphocreatine system is used; then running back down the pitch and running quickly to defend will mainly use the lactic acid energy system. Cardiovascular System
Your heart rate will begin to rise before you even start to exercise. Your brain realizes you are going to work out and releases adrenaline to speed up your heart in preparation for the upcoming exertion. This is called the anticipatory response. The heart rate will continue to rise in direct proportion to the intensity of exercise until maximum heart rate is achieved. Activity Response
At the start or just before the exercise, nerve centres in your brain detect cardiovascular activity. This results in adjustments that increase the rate and pumping strength of your heart. At the same time the regional blood flow is altered in proportion to the intensity of the activity undertaken. Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction during Exercise
Vasoconstriction occurs before exercise when the blood flow in the body is at a normal rate or when the body needs to supply specific areas of the body with more blood than others, for example in the 100m sprint the majority of the blood will be pumped to the legs, so other blood vessels will contract restricting blood flow to unused organs and muscles. Vasodilation occurs during exercise when the body needs to release heat through the skin and to get more blood to the organs and muscles that require the most blood during specific exercise. This is done to get more oxygen to the muscles, but to also get rid of more carbon dioxide. Respiratory System
When you are exercising your respiratory system responds by your breathing rate increases and you start to breathe heavily, this happens because your muscles need more oxygen so you breathe deep and quicker so a supply of oxygen can get to the muscles, also when you finish exercise your breathing rate will decrease and start to recover. Another response from the respiratory system is the tidal volume, which increases as a response to exercise this is because the muscle needs an increase of oxygen. Exercise causes an increase in tidal volume because your requirements for oxygen go up.
This increase is measured in different ways depending on when it occurs during your exercise. An increase in tidal volume is necessary to effectively meet your body’s increased oxygen requirements, as an increase in your rate of respiration alone is not sufficient. As well as the breathing rate and tidal volume, the pulmonary ventilation is also a response to exercise on the respiratory system. The pulmonary ventilation increases when the body starts to do exercise, this happens because like most of the other responses the muscles need more oxygen, there is also an increase in the removal of carbon dioxide.
There are two neural mechanisms that control respiration, one for voluntary breathing and one for involuntary breathing. The voluntary impulse originates in the cerebral cortex region of the brain and the automatic impulse originates in the medulla oblongata. There are chemoreceptors in the brain and the heart that sense the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and acid present in the body. As a result, they control the respiratory rate to compensate for any disruptions in the balance of any of these chemicals. Too much carbon dioxide or acidity and too little oxygen cause the respiratory rate to increase and vice versa.
Your heart supplies the viscera and tissues with oxygen and nutritional support. When the blood goes into the vessels, they dilate, and then narrow again. This recurrent jerky vibration is called pulse. It can be palpated on large arteries of the carotid, radial, femoral and some others.
When the heart contractions become very powerful, you can experience an extremely strong throbbing throughout the body, called the bounding pulse. It is sensed like chattering or rapid heart rate. As a rule, body beating has a short duration. A passing condition should not bother you, but if this happens regularly, you should seek medical advice.
To date, most of the bounding pulses do not require medical assistance and pass on its own. But from time to time a body beating can indicate a malignant health condition that requires urgent medical aid.
You might feel that your heart is pumping faster and forcefully than usual. You might feel the pulse in your neck, hands, or even your whole body. You can easily palpate it on your arm or throat, and sometimes even see pulsating vessels under your skin. You might also feel like your heart beating is irregular, or that it might miss or add extra strokes.
Most of the bounding pulse goes back and forth for a short period of time and does not cause problems. Emergency medical aid is needed if you have a CVD in your medical history or if the bounding pulse is related to the following symptoms:
These signs might be hits of a heart attack. Do not ignore them!
Bounding pulse might give an idea of the main reason, but often this happens without any trigger. Preliminary history might also allow your GP to narrow down the proposed health problems. Palpation of the thyroid gland might be useful in overcoming off hyperthyroidism. First, CBC and simple urine test are recommended.
Another test might include:
Usually, medical care is not required if your bounding pulse is not caused by any medical disorder.
Stress and anxiety are part of everyday life, and learning about its relief can be important. Use the following hints to reduce stress:
Ask your GP about stimulant medications that you can take and about any alternative options. Strive to adopt a healthy lifestyle and to avoid any conceivable causes of pulsations in the neck.