Category Archives: Free Medicine Essay Examples

The Effect of Human Population Growth to our Environment



Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of people in a population. The effects of population growth are varied and vast. While population growth may be beneficial to a certain extent, there may come a time when the number in the population exceeds the natural resources available to sustain it. The proponents of this study want to figure out the effect of human population growth in our environment in the global scale.

Migration may be one of the factors in population growth, but there are many other aspects in which people did not know. What will happen to those who are already peacefully living in an area then suddenly a number of people migrated there? As the population grows the opportunities for quality, available housing may become an issue. More people crowded into less space are not a good combination in any locality. As space is taken up, it becomes more valuable. Eventually, it begins to affect to poorest in the area. In the long run the effect of population growth may be substandard housing or homelessness. In other cases, access to food and clean water may be the main issue.

This is an even more immediate problem than housing. As more people are faced withunsanitary sources of food, disease and famine begin to take root. If left unaffected, it will sweep through an entire  population. In some cases, nations may be affected by the situation. But aside from focusing on the negative side of the population growth the proponents also researched about the positive side of it. Positive effects of population growth include economic benefits such as an expansion of tax bases and increased consumer spending at local businesses, as well as innovations by cultures seeking to keep up with growing populations.

Shark Attack case analysis



1. The organ systems in the boy’s arm that the surgeon would’ve had to reattach are the circulatory, lymphatic, integumentary, muscular, skeletal and the nervous systems.

2. The specific structures that would’ve been reattached would be the humerus bone. Additionally, the muscles that would’ve been reattached are biceps brachii, brachialis, triceps, and the coracobrachialis. The nerves that would’ve been fixed would be the median, ulnar, radial, musculocutaneous, and the antibrachial cultaneous nerves. The brachial, superior and inferior collateral, profunda brachii arteries would have to be reattached, along with several smaller veins.

3. The system that was most likely not reattached would be the lymphatic. The lymphatic system is composed of small vessels that would be very difficult to reattach.

4. A clean shark bite is so important because it would tear less tissue, making it easier to reattach. Less damage would be done to the nerves and muscles in the arm, and after reattachment, use of the arm would be better.

5. It is shorted a little in order to clean up the bone, remove the damaged bone and even it out to make reattachment easier.

6. The movements associated in the arm, forearm, wrist, and fingers are flexion, extension, abduction, rotation, and adduction.

7. After reattachment, movement would be diminished because not all of the nerve fibers would necessarily be reattached.

8. Collateral circulation is the circulation of blood through modified vessels to certain areas. The areas of collateral circulation in the arm are the scapula, the upper head of the humerus, the elbow, wrist, and the hand.

9. The axillary artery, the brachial artery, and the subuvian artery are responsible for the collateral circulation in the upper extremity.

10. Jim could have trouble with clenching his hand into a fist and moving his individual fingers, because not all of the nerves and muscles were attached exactly as they were before.

11. Jim would not be able to regain full use of his arm because after the nerve fibers were severed, they wouldn’t regenerate properly and after that they wouldn’t work as well.

12. The nerves wouldn’t recover nearly as quickly or as completely as the muscle in the arm. The nerves will attempt to regenerate, but if they fail to reconnect, then the nerves won’t fully heal. The muscles would heal much more quickly, especially with physical therapy.

13. If Jim Morris had been 80, the chance of full recovery in the arm would have been significantly depleted. The nerves and muscles wouldn’t recover as quickly. Additionally, a person of 80 years is more likely to have other health issues, and therefore could complicate the surgery. Because Jim was only 8, his body was healthy and would probably be able to heal much more quickly than someone of a much older age.


  • Grabianowski, Ed. “How Shark Attacks Work. ” HowStuffWorks. Discovery, n. d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. Gray, Henry. “VI. The Arteries.
  • The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. A. The Subclavian Artery. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. ” VI. The Arteries.
  • The Arteries of the Upper Extremity. A. The Subclavian Artery. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Bartleby, n. d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.
  • Mackinnon, Susan E. , MD. “Nerve Injury and Recovery. ” (n. d. ): n. pag. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.
  • Markus, Susan. “What Are Five Organ Systems in the Region of Your Arm? ” Questions & Answers. ChaCha, n. d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. ” Replantation. ” Replantation. American Society for Surgert of the Hand, n. d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.

Why Children Shouldn’t have Cell Phones



“Everyone in school has one! How come I can’t get my own cell phone? ” Children today have a higher demand for cell phones at a younger age. Why are cell phones such a necessity to them? Some children say that the use of a phone is if there is an emergency, but how often are they in emergencies? Parents should not become putty in their child’s hands. Cell phones can be a hindrance to your money, your family, and your child’s health. Phones can be the child’s world and rely on their devices to communicate, create expensive phone fees, and have a link to brain cancer.

Children are sometimes unaware of how much they text, call, and use the internet which causes a parent to pay more for the child’s phone plan (Carnegie). In most families with the cell phone paid by parents, the child can freeload off what the parents give them. They will overload with the texting, calling, and internet usage having the parents pay for the extra expenses, including the plan (Carnegie). Some parents might say, “But giving them a cell phone will teach them responsibility! ” It would be true, if only the parents teach them the rules of the phone and plan before giving them the responsibility of a phone.

Verizon asked parents if they set up guidelines and rules for their child’s cell phone; one out of five parents said that they had not set up any rules (Erwin). In addition, they are in danger of cyber bullying, sexting, lack of sleep, and poor grades. Nearly 43% of teens have been victims of cyber bullying, ? of them had it happen more than once (Blough). Cell phones are also a sleep disturbance. More than half of 13- 18 year olds (56%) and nearly half of 19- 29 year olds (42%) say they send, read or receive text messages every night in the hour before bed compared to 15% of 35- 45 year olds and 5% of 46- 64 year olds.

About in one in ten of 13- 18 year olds (9%) say that they are awakened after they go to bed every night by a phone call, text message, or email. About one in five of 19- 29 year olds and 13- 18 year olds (18%) say, this happens at least a few nights a week. Russell Rosenberg, the Vice Chairman of the National Sleep Foundation says, “Unfortunately cell phones and computers, which make our lives more productive and enjoyable, may also be abused to the point that they contribute to getting less sleep at night leaving millions of Americans functioning poorly the next day (N. S. F). ”

Parents need to create guidelines for their child’s phone plan, so that their child is ensured a safe and happy childhood. Placing a cell phone in a child’s hand will drive them away from their own family creating less of a parent to kid relationship. Digital media expert Patricia Greenfield explained in an interview with the New York Times that if you hold off getting your child a cell phone you would maintain better communications between you and your child (Olsen). In addition, children will become more reliant on their phones and if they are apart from their devices, they feel, as they have no purpose in life.

They will base their conversations with friends based on what they talk about through the phone. Children want to improve their social status by impressing their peers. Experts say the social pressure to text can get acute by the sixth grade, when most children are 11 years old. The Pew study found that half of 12- to 17-year-olds sent 50 text messages a day and texted their friends more than they talked to them on the phone or even face to face. Just ask Caroline LaGumina, 11, of New Rochelle, N. Y. , who got her phone last Christmas. “I wanted to be able to text because my friends all text each other (Olsen).”

Cancer can come into affect with cell phones, as children are 2 times more likely to get cancer from cell phone radiation. The frequent exposure to radiation will create a huge increase of brain cancers. The child is more prone to radiation because little children are still developing (EWG). This is because of their small ears, thin skulls, and skin (Reid). The French report, completed for TELECOM ParisTech by Dr. Joe Wiart, found young children have radiation exposures twice that of adults, possibly even higher (Thomas). Shorter studies that are less than 5 years, say that there are no signs of development of brain cancer.

Studies that are running for 7- 20 years, the data collected says that there is a risk of brain cancer. This is because cancer, brain cancer, takes a longer time to develop to show risks (EWG). Parents should always be aware that if you give your child a cell phone that they are in danger of developing brain tumors. In conclusion, children should not have cell phones. The costs of the plans are “Too damn high! ” and children are not responsible enough to have cell phones without guidelines. It will draw your family apart from your child sucked into a virtual world. Cell phones give off radiation, which can cause brain cancer. It is a better idea to get your child their own personal phone when they can follow the rules, learn to balance real word vs. virtual world, and know the effects that cell phones can lead to.


  • Reid, David. Are mobile phones safe for children to use? 5 Aug. 2011. 13 May 2013
  • Thomas, Tessa. As new evidence links mobile phones to a greater risk of tumours, could using one cost your child their life? 3 Nov. 2009. 15 May 2013
  • Olsen, Stefanie. When to Buy Your Child a Cellphone 9 June 2010. 13 May 2013 Carnegie Mellon University. Should Your Child Have a Cell Phone? 17 May 2013
  • National Sleep Foundation. Annual Sleep in America Poll Exploring Connections with Communications Technology Use and Sleep 7 March 2011. 19 May 2013< http://www. sleepfoundation. org/article/press-release/annual-sleep-america-poll-exploring-connections-communications-technology-use>
  • Environmental Working Group. EWG’s Guide to Safer Cell Phone Use: Cellphone FAQs 15 June 2012. 13 May 2013 Erwin, Erica Study: Many parents not setting rules for children’s cell phone use 21 Sept. 2011. 20 May 2013 Blough, Brooke. Cyber- Bullying 13 Nov. 2012. 20 May 2013

Marketing Paper – MAC Cosmetics



Founded by Frank Toskan of Canada in 1984, Makeup Art Cosmetics company is one of the few companies which has used innovative PR and unconventional marketing to create a niche for itself without spending millions of pounds in advertising. The company began by giving away their cosmetics to makeup artists that worked with top models and actresses. MAC developed products that helped artists achieve the right look for stage lighting conditions. It is one of the few brands on the market which has colours to match every skin tone and colour.

Working on a simple all encompassing Brand Positioning of Makeup for All ages, all races, all sexes, its brand values project MAC Makeup as attitudinally hip, artfully irreverent, dedicated fully to the art of self-decoration and the realization of the Individual. The brand personality is cosmopolitan, innovative, irreverent, Original, which has almost created a Cult like following. Loved by women of all ages, it is one of the few fashion brands which truly transcend age. (Viral Marketing, November 9, 2007). MAC fits into the classification of consumer products known as “shopping products”.

A shopping product is usually more expensive than a convenience product and is found in fewer stores. Consumers usually buy a shopping product only after comparing several brands or stores on style, practicality, price and lifestyle compar-ability. They are willing to invest some effort into this process to get the desired benefits. There are two types of shopping products: homogenous and heterogeneous. MAC is a perceived as a heterogeneous product because consumers perceive it as being essentially different – for example, furniture, housing, clothing and universities. ( MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel)

As one of the 25 individual cosmetic brands that are owned by Estee Lauder cosmetics, MAC varies in use and performance and meets the needs of specific market of women with its products. (MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaneil). From the very beginning the marketing strategy was to created makeup for makeup artists for fashion, movies and theatre. Endorsement through word of mouth was generated by giving away cosmetics to makeup artists who worked with top models and actresses in the early years of the Franks venture.

The early adopters are still what gives MAC its solid foundation in the industry. As well over the years, MAC has built a reputation for itself by unconventional and innovative marketing, breaking away from the safe and obvious. This is where they captured the industry professional as well as the upwardly mobile woman who loves fashion and looking good. Through the maturity stage, MAC has transitions beautifully and marketing its brand where it is accepted and loved by women from all social and economic classes. They have a keen sensitivity to pop culture and helps to guide what they do.

Since its philosophy is to create makeup for all ages, sexes and races, it has never shied away from affiliations with controversial artists and personalities that are known the world over (Love to Know Makeup. Michalak, Jodie. www. lovetoknowmakeup. com). MAC is currently in its maturity stage. It is a well received brand that is currently expanding its product presence into other countries outside of the United States. Many of these countries are impoverished, such as Nigeria, but it has not stopped MAC from going against what is considered to be normal to create new clients and expand its market.

Because the North America market has been struggling, they felt it was wise to take chance out of the country to capture new markets (Coleman-Lochner, Lauren. 2013). MKTG 200 Paper #3 – Place Strategy Place, or distribution, strategies are concerned with making products availanle when and where customers want them. A part of this P – place – is physical distribution, which involves all the business activities concerned with storing and transporting raw materials or finished products. The goal is to make sure products arrive in usable condition at designated places when needed. (MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013.

Lamb/Hair/McDaniel). MAC uses distinct placement strategies to distribute its product. MAC Cosmetics intensive distribution takes place at mainly all MAC Pro stores, major department stores or international perfumeries, (Nordstorm’s, Dillard’s, Macy’s, Bloomingdales, Neiman Marcus). This allows them maximum coverage and keeps the product available in every outlet where the potential customers might want to buy it. If buyers are unwilling to search for a product, it’s very accessible. They accomplished this by placing it in the types of stores that their target market frequents. (MKTG 200 – Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel).

The only difference between the MAC Pro Stores and the department store counters is the variety of products that are available. Because MAC was first created to cater to the needs of the make-up industry professionals, it’s lines within the PRO stores cater to those needs. There you will find, pigments, palettes, some primers, air brush machines along with old and new limited edition items that are specific to their store and will not be found at the department store counters. This is the only distribution that MAC uses.

They do not use wholesalers, and although many inquire about becoming a wholesalers, they currently only use the aforementioned type of placement for their products. ( MAC Cosmetics Frequently Asked Questions. www. maccosmetics. com) The retail classifications that MAC uses are department and specialty stores. The department stores carry a wide variety of shopping and specialty goods, including apparel, cosmetics, housewares, electronics and sometime furniture. Macy’s, Nordstrom’s, Neiman Marcus, and some of the larger US department stores that carry MAC. On an international level they are carried in perfumeries.

(McKelney, Lauren. www. wordpress. com, April 30, 2012. MAC Promotion Proposal) (MKTG – 200, 2013. Student Edition. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel) After much research I was unable to find the shipping information for MAC. I do know that currently they are unable to ship cosmetics out of the United States to foreign countries and they ask that clients go to the stores nearest to them in their country. Outside of the stores, MAC has a strong on-line presence with clients purchasing products. You can ship same day, next day, two day or just standard mail which takes up to 5-7 business days. These products are all shipped within the US.

The cost of the shipping depends on how soon you want your product to arrive and can range in price from $5. 00 to $17. 00 for product ranging in price from $0-$50 USA dollars. A standard package over $50 US dollars is free and is minimal cost for same and next day service. (MAC Cosmetics. Shipping & Handling Fee, 2013. www. maccosmetics. com) MAC ‘s distribution process has worked very well for the company over its 29 year existence. Customer service is there #1 concern, and not just selling the products to women, but making sure they know how to confidently wear them, and wear them well.

The make-up artist at the counter is their most valuable asset, the president of the company will brag. It is there one on one approach to the customer that has made it a company that is demanding to be noticed both in and out of the United States. (Estee Lauder News. Company Newsletter, 2013. www. esteelaudernews. com)

Works Cited

  • McKelney, Lauren. www. wordpress. com. April 30, 2012. MAC Promotion Proposal.
  • Belacel, Amel. ISSUU. MAC Cosmetics Brand Analysis.
  • Viral Marketing. www. viralmarketing. com. November 9, 2007
  • MKTG 200. Student Edition, 2013. Lamb/Hair/McDaniel. Page 214, 234-235.
  • Michalak, Jody. Love to Know Makeup (website) Company History MAC Cosmetics.
  • Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. MAC Cosmetics.
  • Coleman-Lochner, Lauren. (March 21, 2013) Bloomberg Businessweek. With MAC, Estee Lauder Enters Emerging Markets
  • Estee Lauder News, 2013. Company Newsletter. www. esteelauder. com. Daphine Whitfield MKTG 200 – Papers 2 & 3 Professor Rich Lewis September 24, 2013
  1. MAC is sold in 66 countries across the globe in 1000 outlets.
  2. MAC’s founder says “I don’t have the luxury of communicating with my clients, so therefore my salespeople are the link between my philosophy and their customers. “This is the reason why MAC assistants on shop counters are trained to advice customers on makeup techniques, formulas, and latest trends.
  3. MAC is present in 53 stores across UK out of which 8 are MAC’s flagship stores proving the fact that the brand pull is so strong that consumers flock these few stores to buy MAC cosmetics giving it a cult like following. So when a mass market brand like L’Oreal or a premium brand like Clinique spend millions on advertising, a brand like MAC does it all by inspiring its stakeholders in non intrusive and subtle ways without spending a fortune on advertising.

In 1994 MAC started retail industry’s first charity called MAC AIDS fund. In 1994, Mac was one of the first to bring charity to retail sector. They started MAC AIDS fund for men, women and children affected by AIDS. The same year they launched VIVA GLAM lipstick. MAC decided that every cent of the selling price of the VIVA GLAM lipsticks would go to the M·A·C AIDS Fund. VIVA GLAM’s first lipstick was red in colour which symbolizes the fight against AIDS/HIV throughout the world.

With a total of six shades of Viva Glam lipstick and two shades of Viva Glam ‘lipglass’ now sold worldwide, and through the annual Kids Helping Kids Card Program, M·A·C Cosmetics has provided over $95 million (US) to date for the M·A·C AIDS Fund. MAC pays for the ads and its production, the packaging, the shipping and of course their lost profit margin out of their own pocket. It worked wonders for the MAC brand as the offer was refreshingly straightforward “Every cent of the selling price of MAC Viva Glam Lipstick and Lipglass is donated to the MAC AIDs Fund to support men, women and children living with HIV and AIDs.

”MAC holds Viva Glam gala and fundraiser annually to raise funds for its charity and VIVA GLAM lipstick has become one of the fashion world’s most glamorous and successful fundraising initiatives of all time. From the beginning the brand has targeted the premium segments with its pricing. Regular introduction of new trendsetting ranges and colours kept the excitement alive like the latest one is ‘Antiquitease’ inspired by antique look. MAC has done some Periodic ads featuring unlikely celebrities such as flamboyant entertainer RuPaul and Elton John.

In 1995,RuPaul was signed to a modelling contract for MAC cosmetics, making him the first drag queen supermodel. M. A. C has never shied away from affiliations with controversial artists. PR strategies used by MAC: Apart from traditional media, MAC regularly gives out new launched products to be reviewed by various beauty websites and beauty blog owners which is one very powerful SEO tool and increase the credibility of the brand. A few examples are as below: http://beautybanter. blogspot. com/2007/10/praying-to-god-of-mac.

html Off late MAC has started heavy usage of PPC advertising. Search for cosmetics or any beauty related term on the Internet and you can see MAC all over the Internet. Marketing Tactics used by MAC over time:

  1. Halloween: 25 different looks for Halloween—from ghoulish to feminine to downright scary— highlighted on its Web site,Maccosmetics. com and at all M. A. C. counters.
  2. Back to MAC: “Because we share your commitment to the environment, M·A·C accepts returns of its primary packaging through the Back to M·A·C Program. By returning six M·A·C primary packaging containers to a M·A·C counter or M·A·C Cosmetics Online, you receive a free M·A·C Lipstick of your choice as our thanks to you.
  3. Barbie colours cosmetics line of cosmetics: MAC has teamed up with Mattel to launch a Barbie line. The line is intended for adults, and comes with its own limited-edition MAC-themed Barbie doll
  4. Temporary websites dedicated to a particular new launch like http://www. barbielovesmac. com/
  5. BoomBox – BoomBox is London’s first free for all Fashion Club in East London.

BoomBox isn’t serious, posey or full of egos; it’s fun, inclusive and unpretentious club unlike fashion which is meant to be exclusive. The fashion ethos at BoomBox is simple: if all else is luxury brands, don’t try and compete – be different, be brilliant on your own terms, create something out of nothing and feed off the sense of community surrounding you. Its frequented by fashion celebrities and is said to have revived London’s fashion scene and London Fashion Week. MAC has tied up with it in smart way by selling MAC and BoomBox co-branded T-Shirts. Team 4: MAC Cosmetics.

MDSE 3850 Promotion of Apparel and Home Furnishings Promotion Campaign Report 1. Executive Summary: This promotion plan for MAC Cosmetics seeks to improve the innovative promotions that MAC is already implementing and add new ideas to the mix. The overall goal of the plan is to get MAC to its full potential through the use of fresh advertising and marketing techniques that will fully showcase the company’s many unseen strengths. The MAC brand has many different opportunities in its current field and target market and can be further pushed to its entire capability to achieve a wider range of consumers.

Other opportunities for MAC include using new forms of advertising to reach new cohorts of consumers, showing how MAC can transition from a daytime look to a nighttime look, and, of course, implementing most of MAC’s current promotions in a new and improved way. MAC’s new promotion plan will use its current strengths to its advantage and help redirect the brand so the strengths do not pose any sort of threat to its overall success. MAC’s competitors range from drug store makeup brands to higher end, more luxurious brands. MAC’s position relative to its competitors is extremely important to the future of the company and its promotions.

MAC has always been seen as a more expensive and more avant-garde brand. Through this new promotion plan, the company will be repositioned to reach more consumers that might have been scared to try MAC products due to its perceived extravagance. The target market for MAC Cosmetics will experience some changes with this new promotion plan as we strive to include a more conservative, mature consumer. While redirecting this brand, the plan will work to keep the original target market by simply using tactics to appeal to a broader range of individuals.

The new promotion plan for MAC will focus on print advertising, direct mail, and interactive advertising. The plan is to focus on MAC’s current promotions and further develop these ideas into successful marketing tactics. This new plan will add a new look to the print advertisements that MAC is already executing, send out direct mail-outs to customers to develop more brand loyalty and appeal to new consumers, and introduce the concept of interactive media to the brand through smart phone applications, interactive store kiosks, and mall events.

Preliminary Research:

Current Marketing Plan

Frank Toskan founded MAC Cosmetics in 1984 (“The MAC Cosmetic,” 2007). He was a photographer from Canada who wanted to invent a cosmetic product that was more artistic and achieved the right look for stage lighting conditions. The cosmetics company is one of the few brands on the market that has colors for all skin tones. MAC has created over 160 lipsticks and 150 eye shadows to date, while also creating limited edition lines (“The History behind,” 2006). According to Viral Marketing “The Brand personality is cosmopolitan, innovative, irreverent, original, which has almost created a Cult like following.

Loved by women of all ages, it is one of the few fashion brands which truly transcend age (“The MAC Cosmetic,” 2007). ” MAC’s current promotion plan is to portray this personality to their niche market through word of mouth, which Toskan did so by giving the products to top notch make up artist who work with models and actresses. Through this MAC has built a well-known reputation for itself with using very little advertising. In 1994, once MAC’s name had become better known, MAC started a new charitable promotion plan, the MAC AIDS Fund.

MAC was on of the first to bring charity to the retail sector. MAC started this with their new line VIVA LA GLAM, which was a lipstick where every cent went towards men, women and children fighting against AIDS. The first lipstick was the color red, which symbolizes the fight against AIDS throughout the world. MAC has always used celebrity endorsements to advertise for VIVA LA GLAM. Currently they have been using Lady GAGA for their advertisement, GAGA is a women who has struggled with her sexuality, hence why she is the perfect person to represent for the MAC AIDS Fund.

MAC has provided $128 million dollars towards the MAC AIDS Fund, while paying for their own advertisements, packaging, and shipping out of their own pocket (“The History behind,” 2006). MAC also gives back to the community by being environmentally friendly through their BACK 2 MAC campaign. The BACK 2 MAC campaign helps the environment by encouraging consumers to recycle their old cosmetic containers. When a consumer returns six of their old MAC containers they will receive a free lipstick of their choice.

The BACK 2 MAC campaign is not only helping out the environment but also giving their customers an opportunity to try out a product that they might not necessarily buy with their own money. MAC is sold in 66 countries around the world and in 1,000 outlets (“The MAC Cosmetic,” 2007). MAC is considered a high quality cosmetic company, selling their products in a higher price range. With their average pricing ranging anywhere from fifteen to twenty dollars for their basic make up, and for a more high end products it can price much more than that. MAC products are often sold in more high-end malls generally having their own stores. If you were to see MAC in a department store it would be a more luxurious department store such as Nordstrom and Dillard’s.

Target Market Analysis Since

MAC was founded as a product made for an artistic community based off of stage lighting, it is geared towards more of a niche market segment. MAC is a cosmetic company meant for all ages, sexes, and races. But when said that it is meant towards all ages, sexes, and races it is not always meant for your average everyday makeup. It is targeted to the more artistic person, who is daring to be different and innovative.

As stated earlier in the paper, MAC is a more “cult” like culture. Their products are more vibrant and out there, which is meant for a very small segment in the cosmetics market. MAC doesn’t attract the consumer who is looking for cosmetics that they could wear to work or school, they attract the consumer who is artistic and independent in their life style. While MAC does have it’s charitable organizations through MAC AIDS Fund and BACK 2 MAC to draw in consumers who are willing to give back to their community while also doing something for themselves.

MAC doesn’t advertise these organizations well enough to bring in new consumers who are looking for a cosmetic company who gives back, it is more known to their already existing consumers and that is what MAC wants to achieve through this promotional campaign, to broaden MAC’s customers. They have a strong customer loyalty through their existing consumers, but MAC needs to draw in new consumers. The way to do this is to change their promotional strategies and use more than just word-of-mouth.

Situational Analysis

Internal Factors

MAC’s current promotion campaign consists of word-of-mouth, magazine ads, online videos, celebrity endorsement and partnerships with other brands. ”M. A. C spends merely $7,795. 8M on advertisement each year, which is nothing compared to what other cosmetic companies spend for advertisement, estimated at 2. 7 billion yearly (Lootawan, 2010). ”MAC relies on word-of-mouth and letting loyal consumers spread their love of MAC Cosmetics. “M. A. C word-of-mouth promotional strategy helps M. A. C cosmetics promote itself by “letting the brand speak for itself.

This particular strategy has been used by M. A. C since it was first introduced to famous celebrities, which allowed M. A. C to be exposed to the public and become one of the most famous cosmetic lines today (Lootawan, 2010). ” MAC uses celebrity endorsements in almost all of their magazine advertisements. “M. A. C is well-known because of the celebrity exposure it gets from high rank clientele. ” Some of MAC’s current celebrity endorsements include Lady Gaga, Boy George, Fergie, Cyndi Lauper and many more (Celebrity Endorsement Ads, 2011).

MAC is very successful at promoting its cosmetics through social media like Facebook, Twitter and Youtube. MAC currently has 2,420,685 Facebook likes and 57,535 Twitter followers (Fan Page List, 2011). MAC Cosmetics Youtube channel consists of promotional videos featuring celebrities as well as how to videos from MAC makeup artists (MAC Cosmetic’s Channel, 2011). MAC has also had successful promotions through creating product partnerships with other brands such as Hello Kitty, Barbie, Wonder Woman, Lilly Pulitzer and Alice + Olivia (Temptalia, 2010). SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS:

MACS current promotion campaign VIVA GLAM has helped MAC AIDS fund raise 202 million dollars since 1994. MAC promotes its products to all ages, sexes and races by using endorsements from different celebrities like Lady Gaga, Boy George, Lil Kim, Pamela Anderson, Johnny Weir, Missy Elliot, Fergie and many more. MAC has made itself really well known by using bright flashy advertisements. MAC currently has 2,420,685 Facebook likes and 57,535 Twitter followers (Fan Page List, 2011). WEAKNESSES: MAC only advertises their products online and with magazine ads, not utilizing other forms of promotion.

MAC primarily uses extreme makeup in their advertisements, which doesn’t attract a broad audience of people. MAC doesn’t promote their BACK 2 MAC recycling program very well and many consumers don’t know what it is. MAC primarily focuses their promotions on their VIVA GLAM line of products and not all of the other lines they carry. OPPORTUNITIES: By using other forms of advertising, such as direct mail, kiosks and a phone application MAC will reach more consumers. By informing consumers about the BACK 2 MAC program MAC will recycle more used containers and get more consumers shopping in their stores.

By showing advertisements with day time makeup looks MAC will attract more conservative women who want to wear their makeup to work and out at night. By using other celebrities like Jennifer Aniston who aren’t as flashy as MACS current endorsers MAC will attract the consumer who wants to wear her makeup a little more modestly. THREATS: By using multiple advertising outlets MAC could possibly over saturate their consumers with too many advertisements.

By showing how MAC makeup can be used for daytime looks consumers may too closely compare MAC to other makeup brands such as Covergirl and Clinique. By providing direct mail coupons customers may only buy MAC products with coupons or during sales promotions and not at full price, which could cost MAC some revenue. While giving free samples and complementary makeovers will draw consumers into MAC they may just take what is free and not make any purchases, loosing revenue for MAC. SWOT Analysis

External Factors

General Dynamics

MAC is known for taking a bold approach to cosmetics and not being timid by what the standard is to achieve beauty. They were founded as a cosmetic line for artists and that still stays true today.

The company’s dynamic reflects a daring side to cosmetics and allows make-up artists to be free of creativity and ideas. MAC has been very successful in producing a quality brand but with such an extreme dynamic look it can shy off the everyday consumer. The industry of cosmetics is various in all different types of products while marketing to all different types of consumers. Instead of taking the “matchy-matchy” approach that most cosmetic company’s do with matching the right eye shadow with the appropriate eye color, MAC used a more untraditional route (Harris, 2011).

Consumer Behavior

This industry is all about enhancing and beauty with products that make the skin more even, the eyes more radiant and the lips more luscious. Although MAC offers products that do what all the traditional make up lines do, MAC takes the meaning of beauty and mixes it with art. They advertise these traditional products in a unique way by favoring the art side by adding words like “studio” and “glamour” into their product names (Harris, 2011). Although MAC has a solid product it is seen that a softer approach would be in their benefit.

A softer approach will draw in the everyday consumer instead of having the feeling of intimidation. The consumer demands that their cosmetics boost their self-esteem and enhance their feature to help them feel more beautiful. In the narrow product category of art make up there are changes that could be an advantage to companies with this category. When advertising art make up it creates a very small target market and can eliminate possible sales. MAC should try and shy away from a narrow market and market to a more general audience.

Instead of using gallant ad campaigns with bold celebrities, maybe consider putting an average consumer in an ad to show the versatility of the products (Irosado, 2009). As it could appear MAC could use different promotion strategies to achieve this goal of relating more to the traditional consumer. The promotions that they have now are good ideas but not implemented well enough to increase revenue.


The competitive situation of MAC is that they are limiting themselves and not using all the resources, opportunities, and marketing strategies to the best of the company’s ability. The competitors are higher priced cosmetics that are also known for a great quality and have the approachableness that MAC does not. Because this industry will always be in high demand and new products are coming out daily to fix the new thing that has become ugly, this segment is very competitive. MAC’s competitors are doing well but may be looking for a change as well.

Communication Process

Promotional Objectives

The overall goal of the promotion objectives is to increase revenue by expanding the current target market while reaching out to a new consumer with new marketing tactics.

The promotional campaign intends to add marketing by adding social media, interactive advertising, and connecting with the everyday consumer more efficiently. The goal is by the end of 2012 MAC has executed all the marketing efforts that are being created with this plan and to see results and feedback by the end of 2012. The plan is to execute brand awareness by the consumer of all the current promotion strategies like Back 2 MAC, AIDS charity, and the makeovers offered with a product purchase of fifty dollars.

To implement this plan MAC must first launch the new print ads and to send out the direct mail created to highlight these promotions. The rest of the promotion mixes will begin and to start measuring results. Results could vary by seeing if there are more conservative women walking in asking about the products to an increase in consumer wanting to use the back to MAC to their advantage. We plan to benchmark our performance by comparing sales to previous years and seeing how he consumers respond to all the new marketing efforts.

It is possible to achieve this in various ways with the promotion plan. Measurements will be taken with how many consumers come in talking about or using the direct mail to their advantage. By benchmarking the progress MAC is able to measure the results in an accurate way and see tangible improvement.

Positioning Strategy


The MAC Cosmetics brand was founded with the intentions to market towards makeup artists in the fashion, theatre, and movie industries (“The MAC Cosmetics Story,” 2007).

In more recent years MAC has expanded to more of a mass market but still focuses on the original extravagance and innovative looks that it began with. MAC has generally focused on a price-quality positioning strategy. Through this strategy, MAC keeps product prices in a higher range to highlight the superior quality that the products offered are believed to possess (Roy, 2010). Although this positioning strategy seems to work well with MAC’s minimal marketing and advertising strategy that depends widely on word-of-mouth communication, there are some changes that would greatly increase the success that MAC is already experiencing.

If MAC were to change their positioning strategy to focus not only on its products’ superior quality through higher prices, but also on the many features and benefits offered, the company would be much more well-known and successful (Roy, 2010). With the use of positioning strategies that showcase product features and benefits, there will be much less dependence on word-of-mouth since consumers will already be aware of the many wonderful programs and special features that MAC has to offer. Through MAC’s many unique aspects and new promotion mix ideas, the company will be much more apparent and appealing in the consumer’s mind.

Instead of just hearing about how great MAC’s makeup products are, the consumer will actually be able to see, through increased promotion efforts and unique advertising, how MAC truly is superior in product quality, despite its higher prices. The repositioning of MAC will also focus on making the brand appeal to a broader market by showing how the products offered can be worn as day-to-day makeup and do not always have to be seen as extravagant. There are several possible risks involved with changing MAC’s positioning strategy and pushing it to appeal to a more conservative consumer.

As the brand seems to go more mainstream and become more visible to the public eye, it could lose some support from its original market. The new positioning strategy must take precautions as to not lose the original market by keeping MAC’s initial image in tact by simply featuring what MAC already has to offer in new and innovative ways. This shift of positioning strategy to highlight MAC’s best product features and benefits is the best move for MAC to become more prominent in the cosmetic market and is necessary for the growing success of the brand.

The MAC brand has typically been positioned as a more expensive and extremely avant-garde cosmetic company in relation to its competitors. Some of the main competitors that MAC faces include Sephora, Urban Decay, Lancome, and many others that are featured in the positioning map below (“JGlamour Makeup Brushes,” 2009). Currently MAC. seems to fall in the higher end as far as pricing goes and extremely avant-garde in style (Belacel, 2010). The consumer has generally seen MAC products as too extravagant and too innovative when it comes to style, colors, and the overall look the makeup usually is shown to create.

With new positioning strategies in place, the MAC brand will seek to appeal to more conservative consumers by showing the market the wide range of looks MAC makeup products are capable of without losing the original market’s interest. The shift in positioning strategies will leave MAC in the same place as far as quality and price go in relation to competitors, but will attempt to cover a wider range of styles to appeal to a wider range of consumers while still maintaining the edgy extravagance that captured the loyalty of the original market.

 Target Market

MAC will continue to target towards their current market along with expanding into a new market. The target consumer for the new MAC promotion campaign is the female of all races within Generation X. The target consumer ages between 30 and 50, born between 1961 and 1981 and estimated at 50 million (Dawson, 2011). These individuals grew up in tough economic times mainly in two-income families. However, during the Gen Xers childhood, parents started to divorce and the women of the household began to join the workforce.

Difference between Stress and Anxiety



Frustration: When we feel thwarted or hindered from achieving the goals we are seeking it upsets or angers us because we are unable to do anything about the problem. Most frustrations are not serious and are minor in nature but if frustrations are not resolved then they can accumulate and cloud our perspective and can cause stress in our lives. A common example of a frustrating situation can be being held up in traffic when we are running short on time. Stress: When a person evaluates a situation or an event as potentially harmful, threatening, or challenging and responds to the situation or event accordingly.

Different people respond differently to same stressors; road rage is a good everyday example. People have different coping or stress busting mechanisms. Some people are able to cope with tough challenges and demanding careers while other may find coping with everyday chores stressful. How people cope with stressors depends on individual interpretations and of the kind of stress management resources available to individuals who need help. Conflict: When we have to deal with two or more contrary goals or when there is a clash of interests between two or more parties.

When a situation demands a decision in which we must decide between two or more alternatives we may experience conflict. We can divide conflicts into four broad categories: i. Approach-Approach: This is a non-threatening conflict when we have to choose from two attractive alternatives; choose between two things we like; e. g. choosing between two restaurants that we like. ii. Approach-Avoidance: When making a choice between something that is part hostile or distressing and part attractive. This type of conflict arises when we have to choose between one part that is attractive and another part that is repulsive.

For e. g. wanting to go out with someone but being afraid that you may not be liked. iii. Avoidance-Avoidance: When having to choose between two unattractive options. For e. g. going to the dentist and writing a tough exam. iv. Double-Approach Avoidance: having to choose between alternatives with both having attractive as well as repulsive parts. For e. g. one may have to move house to a posh locality but having to move away from friends at the same time. Anxiety: This is a kind of general apprehension and fear with no particular cause or identifiable source.

Anxiety happens usually when frustration becomes too high and the person is unable to resolve conflict. People suffering from anxiety cannot do anything to eliminate the cause and that is partly the reason for its being so damaging. People constantly have a feeling of foreboding that something is wrong and disaster is looming and be powerless to act. People may experience panic attacks and feel faint and breathless. They are too frightened to be coherent and may try to avoid any situation that may be stressful. 2. A broad differentiation between personality types A and B based on patterns of behaviours and temperaments is discussed here:

• Type A: This type of personality is generally task oriented, time conscious, demanding, ambitious and competitive. They enjoy success and achieving difficult challenges. They are prone to more stress as they are more aggressive, are more easily angered and do not unwind or relax easily and find it hard to quit even when their goal is achieved. They have a tendency to sleep less and are more addicted to caffeine. Such types of people are more prone to heart diseases than type B individuals. • Type B: This type of personality is more relaxed and easy going.

They are not overly competitive and over ambitious. They enjoy working steadily and are not bogged down by lack of success. They do not drive themselves too hard to achieve perfection. They are happy in their jobs, with their friends and surroundings. They like reflecting and are creative with ideas and concepts. They tend to be more understanding, cooperative and forgiving, and are not easily angered. Such people are more concerned with quality rather than quantity. As they are more relaxed they are less prone to stress related diseases like high blood pressure or heart diseases.

People with a healthy personality have the ability to accept themselves as they are and feel at peace with themselves. This does not mean that they are complacent and do not want to change in order to improve themselves. They have a basic sense of self-discipline and self-respect which helps them to be balanced and stress free. Some pertinent ccharacteristics of a Healthy Personality are:

  • They are aware of their strengths and weaknesses and have an insight into understanding others perspectives.
  • They are clear headed and are easier to interact with and are more understanding and cooperative.
  • They are usually good communicators as they are good listeners and are articulate.
  • They usually have positive attitudes and put their talents and skills to positive use.
  • They are clear headed and are usually competent.
  • They can work harmoniously with other personality types and get the best outcomes from group work.
  • They are confident and less aggressive as they do not feel threatened by competition.

Works Cited:

  • Seaword, B. L. Managing stress: principles and strategies for health and wellbeing. London. Jones and Bartlett Publishers International. pp: 131-134. 2006. Print

Informative Speech About Tattoos



Essays about Tattoos

It seems like everyone has one these days. What used to be the property of sailors, outlaws, and biker gangs is now a popular body decoration for many people. And it’s not just anchors, skulls, and battleships anymore, from school emblems to Celtic designs to personalized symbols; people have found many ways to express themselves with them. Maybe you’ve thought about getting one. Well before you head down to the nearest tattoo shop and roll up your sleeve, there are a few things you need to know.

So You Ask, What Exactly is a Tattoo?

A tattoo is a puncture wound, made deep in your skin, that’s filled with ink. The tattoo is made by penetrating your skin with a needle and injecting ink into the area creating some sort of design of your choosing. The thing that makes tattoos so long lasting is the fact that they’re so deep, the ink isn’t injected into the epidermis (the top layer of skin that you continue to produce and shed throughout your lifetime). Instead, the ink is injected into the dermis, which is the second, deeper layer of skin. Dermis cells are very stable, so the tattoo is practically permanent.

Most tattoo shops these days use a tattoo machine, which is a handheld electric instrument that uses a tube and needle system. One end is a sterilized needle, which is attached to tubes that contain ink. A foot switch is used to turn on the machine, which moves the needle in and out while driving the ink about 1/8 inches into your skin. Getting a tattoo can take several hours, depending on the size and design.

Does it Hurt to Get a Tattoo?

Getting a tattoo can be very painful, but the level of pain can vary, depending on your pain threshold, how good the artist is with the machine, and the location of the tattoo. Because getting a tattoo involves being stuck multiple times with a needle, it can fell like getting a bunch of shots or being stung by a hornet multiple times. Some people describe it as “tingling. ” But again, it all depends on your own personal pain threshold as to how it will feel to you. If You’re Thinking About Getting a Tattoo…. There’s one very important thing you must keep in mind, getting it done safely. Although it looks a lot cooler than a big scab, a new tattoo is also a wound and like any other scrape, puncture, cut or penetration to your skin, a tattoo is at risk for infections and disease.

You need to make sure you are up to date with your immunizations (especially hepatitis and tetanus shots) and plan where you will get medical care if your new tattoo does become infected. Signs of infection include excessive redness or tenderness, prolonged bleeding, pus, or changes in your skin color around the tattoo. If you have a medical problem such as heart disease, allergies, diabetes, skin disorders or any condition that affects your immune system or are prone to infections, you should ask your doctor before deciding to get a tattoo.

Also, if you are prone to getting keloids (an overgrowth of scar tissue in the area of the wound), it’s probably best to avoid getting a tattoo altogether. Avoiding Infection It’s very important to make sure the tattoo studio is clean and safe, and that all equipment is disposable (needles, gloves, masks, etc. ) and that everything is sterilized. You can call your state, county, or local health department to ask for recommendations on licensed tattoo shops, or to ask about any complaints about a particular studio.

Professional studios take pride in their cleanliness; here are a few things to check for: Make sure the studio has an autoclave which is a device that uses steam, pressure, and heat for sterilization. Check to make sure the tattoo artist is a licensed practitioner; if they are they should be able to provide you with references. Be sure the studio follows the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Universal Precautions. These are specific rules and regulations that outline procedures to be followed when dealing with bodily fluids such as blood.

If the studio looks unclean or if anything looks out of the ordinary, or if you feel in any way uncomfortable, you should find another place to get your tattoo. What to Expect Here’s what you can expect from a normal tattooing procedure: The tattooist will wash his or her hands with germicidal soap. The area to be tattooed will be cleaned and disinfected. The tattooist will put on clean, fresh gloves and maybe a mask. The tattooist will explain the sterilization procedure and open up the single-use sterilized equipment. With the tattoo machine the tattooist will begin drawing an outline of the tattoo under your skin.

The outline will be cleaned with antiseptic soap and water. Sterile, thicker needles will be installed on the tattoo machine, and the tattooist will start shading the design. After cleaning the area again, color will be injected. A new bottle of ink should be opened for each individual. Any blood will be removed by a sterile, disposable cloth or towel. When finished the area will be cleaned once again and a bandage will be applied. Taking Care of your New Tattoo The last step in getting your tattoo is very important; taking care of the tattoo until it fully heals.

Follow all of the instructions the studio gives you for caring for your tattoo to make sure it heals properly. Also, keep in mind that it’s very important to call your doctor right away if you see or feel any signs of infection such as pain, spreading redness, swelling, or drainage of pus. To make sure your tattoo heals properly: Keep a bandage on the area for up to 24 hours (depending on the recommendations given at the studio) Avoid touching the tattooed area and do not pick at any scabs that may form. Wash the tattoo with an antibacterial soap (do not use alcohol or peroxide-they will dry out the tattoo).

Use a soft towel to dry the tattoo – just pat it dry and be sure not to rub it. If you do not have an allergy to antibiotic ointment, rub some into the tattoo. Don’t use petroleum jelly this can cause it to fade. Put an ice pack on the tattooed area if you see any redness or swelling. Try not to get the tattoo wet until it fully heals. Stay away from pools, hot tubs, or long, hot baths. Keep your tattoo away from the sun until it’s fully healed. Even after it’s healed, it’s best to keep the tattoo out of direct sunlight to keep it from fading. So Is It Worth It? Is getting a tattoo worth the money and hassle? It’s entirely up to you.

Some people really enjoy their tattoos and are happy to keep them for life, whereas others might regret that they acted on impulse and didn’t think about it long enough before they got one. Getting a tattoo is a big deal, especially since they’re designed to be permanent. If you’ve thought about it and do decide you want a tattoo, make sure you do a little detective work and find a clean, safe, and professional tattoo shop. Also, remember that getting and maintaining a tattoo involves responsibility; after you leave the tattoo shop; it’s up to you to protect and treat it to prevent infections and/or other complications.

Hospital Management Software Abstract



This project is aimed at developing a platform where all the hospitals, doctors and the ambulance services within a fixed area are brought under a single online application. Here anyone can access the application from anywhere at any time. The database stores the details of all the hospitals and doctors along with their specializations and consulting time slots. At once a person get access to this application all his previous and present medical records will be stored to the database. It also provides a 24 hours ambulance information facility.

Doctors logging in should be able to update their patients’ medical records and access their previous medical records. PROBLEM DEFINITION CASE I It is not a case that one person often visits the doctor. The treatment details of one patient in a hospital will not be available in another. For efficient medical assistance all the previous medical records of a patient should be available with his doctor. CASE II The doctor who suits best for our requirements cannot be simply recognized from one hospital alone. The fields in which each doctor specializes may vary.

They may be working in different hospitals too. CASE III It is not that easy to identify the nearest ambulance service. All these details cannot be made available as a database for one hospital alone. PROPOSED SYSTEM All the above stated difficulties can be managed by the proposed system where we can integrate all the hospitals within a fixed area. In our database, the details of all the doctors in these hospitals along with their specializations can be stored. A person in need can access to this application and get appointment with a doctor whom they wish to consult.

All his previous medical records and treatment details will be stored by the doctor for future references. There will be an id generated for all the patients. And the doctors will be having a permanent id. A 24X7 ambulance information facility can provide each person with the information about the nearest ambulance service by using global positioning system. MODULES OF THE PROJECT * ADMINISTRATOR He has the privilege to access all the details in the database that are not visible to the users. All the details cannot be made available to the users, such as information about doctors.

The personal details of doctors are not supposed to be open to public. This is done to ensure security. Only the administrator can view and edit these details. * USER Whenever a user logins, a user id is given. Select the hospital and appropriate doctor from the search list. The time slot given can be compared and send request for appointment. Treatment details can be retrieved. Request for ambulance services can be made. * DOCTOR-LOGIN A doctor id is given whenever he logs in. Time slot is set for each doctor. Entering treatment details. Each patient id can be used to access his previous records.

* AMBULANCE DRIVER Each ambulance driver is given a particular id. A flag is used which is set when he is engaged and reset when he is free. Location is also entered. Use global positioning system. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Intel Dual core or i5 CPU 1. 80GHz RAM (SD/DDR): 4GB or above Hard disk: 500 GB or above SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Front end: ASP. net Back end: SQL Server Operating system: Windows 2008 Server/Professional or above Framework: . Net Framework 4. 0 Language: ASP. net, C# Database: SQL Server 2005 or 2008 Web server: IIS 5. 0 or above.

Daphnia Experiment




In this experiment I aim to find out if caffeine has an effect on the heart rate of daphnia. Daphnia are water fleas that have a sort of heart that we can see in magnification. We can count the number of heart beats in a minute of a regular daphnia and try and get a new one with the same specifications as the old one that may have died. It is also a good idea to get a new one as we want to see how much it affects it from ordinary instead of adding the caffeine one after another. We have to be careful not to feed too much caffeine to the daphnia only a maximum of 1% as we may not be able to get a reading due to it dying. Planning


There is a correlation between concentration of caffeine solution and the heart rate of Daphnia. In this experiment, when the concentration of caffeine solution increases, the heart rate of Daphnia increases. Null Hypothesis

There is no correlation between concentration of caffeine solution and the heart rate of Daphnia. Scientific basis for the hypothesis Caffeine acts as a stimulant drug, causing increased amounts of stimulatory neurotransmitters to be released. At high levels of consumption caffeine has been linked to restlessness insomnia and anxiety, causing raised stress and blood pressure. Statistical Test

Student’s T-test: it is used for continuous data because it shows a difference between the independent and dependent variable.

After working out my student-t test, my calculated value for t is greater than the critical value of t. If it is greater it states that I will need to reject my null hypothesis. This means that I can accept my hypothesis.


The independent variable for the experiment is the presence of 5% caffeine that’s given to the daphnia which can be changed by adding a drop each time. The dependent variable is the heart rates of the daphnia which can be measured by finding the heart beat for 10s then multiply it by 6 to get it for 1 minute. This can be done by dotting the paper to count the heart beat. The controlled variable throughout the experiment are:

Temperature: if the temperature is high than it might change the heart rate. This can be controlled by using water bath. The daphnia should be on the slide for the same amount of time: this is because the heart increases the heart rate. Use similar size daphnia: the smaller the daphnia have a higher rate than bigger daphnia. The amount of water: dilute the caffeine solution.

In some experiments there are some limitations. These are the following: the heat produced when the lamp is on cannot be handled and might be the reason for the heart rate to increase the heart rate might increase because of the effort of the daphnia that is trying to escape from the cotton wool.

Equipment (other than standard glassware etc…)


Cotton Wool


O.5% caffeine solution

Dechlorinated water


In this experiment there are the following risks both for the lab partner that carries out the experiment and the daphnia: 1. We both should be cautious not to touch the lamp with wet hands since it uses electricity. 2. Also, be careful not to spill any of the pond water on the floor. 3. As for the daphnia, there is a chance for them to die as when they are exposed to light, they are also exposed to heat in which they aren’t used to.

Ethical Issues

It should be understood that any experiment involving living organism always rises up bioethical issues. While performing experiment involving living organism can bring greater advances in science, it should not be forgotten

that the well-being of the living organisms involved in the experiment should be taken care of, so that they do not suffer for the experiment or at least their sufferings are minimized. Therefore, the Daphnia being used in the experiment ought to be treated with great care to avoid hurting or even killing them. If possible, the Daphnia should be returned back to their natural habitat after the experiment so that they can return to their normal lives. Method

  1. These are the steps that we followed when doing the experiment:
  2. Use fresh Daphnia for each different caffeine solution.
  3. Use a pipette to transfer the daphnia to a cavity slide containing pond water of known volume.
  4. Add some cotton wool to the cavity slide and place it in a way that the daphnia can’t move.
  5. Turn the microscope lamp on and locate the heart of the daphnia through the microscope.
  6. In a pair one will use a stopwatch to count 10 seconds which is the time during which the other person will measure the heart beat by dotting the beats onto a piece of paper.
  7. Measure the beat rate.
  8. Repeat steps 1-6 about 2 or 3 times and get an average without caffeine then after 6 readings repeat the steps with caffeine.
  9. Clean the cavity slide using a tissue and make sure there is no pond water left.


In conclusion the heart rate of the daphnia increased when caffeine was added. From the graph it suggests that there is a significant difference between the heart rate without caffeine and with caffeine. The highest the heart rate per minute without caffeine was 306 beats which increased by 84 beats per minute when caffeine was added. When standard error (SE) bars do not overlap, you cannot be sure that the difference between two means is statistically significant. Even though the error bars do not overlap in the experiment, the difference is not statistically significant. Also as the concentration of caffeine increases, heart rate of Daphnia increases for caffeine concentration up to 0.5% because caffeine is a stimulant which raises the heart rate of animals. Assumption that a similar effect would result in human can be made.

However, some the results from the graph varied because we didn’t use the same size daphnia. Some of them were either pregnant or were having babies which could have affected the results because the bigger the daphnia the bigger the surface area the higher the heart rate. To improve the experiment I would have repeated the test three times in order to obtain higher accuracy. Random errors could be minimised in this way. Tapping a pencil on a piece of paper and count up the pencil marks at the end of the time period was a method which is more primitive and errors are more likely to occur because some pencil marks may be too close together and cause confusion in counting the number pencil mark.

The limited caffeine concentration for Daphnia is about 1%. That means high concentration of caffeine solution should not used for Daphnia may die of it. Hence, the highest concentration of caffeine solution used in the experiment is only 0.5%. There are a few unavoidable limitations in this experiment which may affect the accuracy of the results. The following are the limitations and their respective improvements: Temperature of the environment of the Daphnia is one of the factors that affect the heart rate of it. Prolong exposure of the Daphnia to the microscope light will overheat the Daphnia. To prevent the Daphnia from overheating, the microscope light should be turned off between observations and a heat sink should be used.

Heart beat of Daphnia can be very fast when caffeine solution was added. Missing a few beats when counting the heart beat or beating of legs is almost inevitable. An improvement to this is to set a video camera above the eyepiece so that the heart beat of Daphnia is recorded. Later, the video can be played in slow motion with the timeline of the video displaying on the screen. This helps to obtain a more accurate heart beat rate.

Since the Daphnia is not observed under its natural habitat, its stressed level in the experiment may be higher than usual. This might cause a change in its heart rate or an undesired change in the heart rate. The only thing to be done is to count the heart beat of the Daphnia as soon as it is ready to be observed.

Daphnia are selected as the model in this experiment as they are fairly easy to keep and the transparent body allows easy observation of changes in heart rate under a microscope without having to dissect it. On the minus side, experimenters have to be extremely cautious when dealing with them because they are delicate and vulnerable. Generally, when the concentration of caffeine solution increases, the heart rate of Daphnia increases. Prolong exposure of Daphnia to caffeine can result in the building up of tolerance of Daphnia towards caffeine.

Homeostasis: Burn Victim



You are working in a hospital and you are instructed to care for a burn victim. Answer the following questions related to their wounds. A first degree burn only injures the epidermis, a second degree burn has extended through the dermis, and a third degree burn extends as far down as the hypodermis. Use this information to answer the questions by considering where the burn is and what happens in that skin layer. Why does a first or second degree burn hurt more than a third degree burn? Third degree burn affects the nerves where one might not feel as much pain as a first or second degree burn.

Which of the three types of burns will heal the fastest and why? A first degree burn will heal the fastest because the epidermis is only affected. Areas affected by second degree burns can heal almost completely, but often have a slight discoloration, which is enhanced by sunlight. Why might this be? The ultra violent rays of the sun overtime can affect the skin and cause discoloration. If your victim has extensive second degree burns, these body functions would be affected. Explain why they would be affected and how.

Hydration The heat can cause someone to become dehydrated . Temperature Control High amounts of heat can cause the body to become overheated and harder to control a stable temperature Infections Second degree burns is like a wound and someone can be more prone to bacteria entering the body and causing infection. Vitamin D Homeostasis (application-5) Think of three basic body functions that are controlled by negative feedback and homeostasis. In your own words, what is the basic function of these things: Sensor: Control Center: Effector:

Controlled Variable| What happens when this variable is too high to bring it down? | What happens when this variable is too low to bring it up? | Temperature| Hydrate the body to bring it down| Try to keep warm or enter a warmer climate. | Oxygen level| Long deep breaths to regulate the respiratory system. | Run in place and fast speed to the heart pumping. | Blood sugar| Eat a gluten free diet. | Eat something containing sugar example Orange or Banana. | Blood pressure| Stay relaxed and stress free. | | What kind of feedback is related to blood clotting and why is this so?