Category Archives: Free Medicine Essay Examples

Emotional and Social Impact of Hypertension



One primary emotional effect of hypertension on an individual is the feeling of disappointment as he has been diagnosed to have an elevated blood pressure. He may also feel that he neglected taking good care of his body in the past and that he is now paying for the consequences. In addition, the development of hypertension can also influence the quality of activities that he is performing in his daily life.

1. Relationships

An individual with hypertension can influence the quality of relationships that he carries with other individuals. The members of the family of the patient will be most affected by hypertension, as changes in the patient’s diet have to be monitored. There may be a change in the kind and preparation of meals that are set on the dinner table, as the patient will have to refrain from eating fatty and salty foods (Lima de Gusmao et al. , 2009). It would be offensive if fatty foods were still served at the dinner table when the members of the family are aware that the patient may not eat these dishes.

2. Functioning

A person with hypertension will have to modify his activities in order to adapt to his medical condition. The patient should thus be careful of performing extremely physical activities that may increase his blood pressure. In addition, the patient should also learn to relax in order to prevent his body from overly reacting to external stimuli.

3. Recreation

In terms of recreation, an individual with hypertension should be cautious in his choice of form of recreation. For example, if he used to play tennis for 3 hours every Saturday, then it is much better that he play the same sport for a shorter duration, such as 2 hours, in order to avoid any further complications. He should also monitor the amount of alcohol and cigarettes that he consumes as these factors can affect his condition.

4. Work

An individual with hypertension will be cautious in his activities at work, wherein he will make sure that his activities are not too stressful, as this may increase his blood pressure at any time. His social interactions with co-workers may also change because he may not go drinking with them any more or his drinking may be decreased due to his medical condition and the medications he is continuously taking.

II. Effects on Family Functioning of Hypertension

Hypertension can affect the family of a patient because more time is needed in monitoring his blood pressure. In addition, there will be more visits to the doctor as his condition has to be checked several times each years, especially when the patient has developed complications such as diabetes. There may also be a change in the functioning of the family because a treatment regimen for hypertension is often associated with spending some amount of money to buy the medications. If the family is not financially stable, the medication expenses may result in a change in the entire budget of the household.

III. Impact on Community/Society of Hypertension

An individual with hypertension can also affect his immediate community or society because he will have to refrain from highly physical activities that are held by his community. For example, the individual may not be able to join his community group on hiking trips as this may aggravate his condition. Any social gatherings that involve alcohol, such as drinking parties should be avoided because this can affect the medications he is taking for his condition. The quality of social interactions of an individual with hypertension is thus affected.


  • Lima de Gusmao, J. , Mion, D. , Jr. , Pierin and A. M. G. (2009). Health-related quality of life and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with and without complications. Clinics, 64, 619-628.

What You Need to Know about Hepatitis C



What Is Hepatitis C?

A hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes an inflammatory state of the liver. The illness may be mild in heaviness and lasts few weeks (acute form), or it can last for the whole life (chronic form). Almost 3% of the population is infected with HCV. The disease can pass without any signs or manifest with serious disorders. The danger of the hep. C is that it is recognized quite late, since most of the affected people do not show any signs of illness at all.

How is hepatitis C transmitted?

The presence and proliferation of RNA virus in hepatocytes provoke the hepatic inflammation and the destruction of tissue and cells. HCV can be passed on in blood through:

  • reuse of syringes by IV drug addicts;
  • the multiple uses or imperfect sterilization of medical equipment and tools for making tattoos and piercing;
  • the transfusion of blood products;
  • the sexual intercourse;
  • from a pregnant woman to an infant.

One must remember that a virus cannot be disseminated through tears, milk, saliva and food. Hep. C does not spread through casual contacts, such as shaking hands, hugging or kissing. Usually, the exact source of contagion cannot be detected.

Symptoms of Hepatitis C

Up to 80% of those infected with HCV do not experience any symptoms. The incubation phase lasts 2-24 months. The common hepatitis C symptom is jaundice (when eyes, mucous membranes, and skin become yellow and the urine becomes dark) Fever, tiredness and exhaustion, low appetite, sickness and vomiting, joint ache indicate intoxication. Abdominal pain can be caused by an expanded liver and spleen; sometimes people may have spider-like blood vessels.

Hep. C is characterized by a high activity of liver transaminases even being subclinical. On rare occasions, it happens per acute hep. C in settings with hepatitis B, cirrhosis, and after immunosuppressive therapy in addition to liver transplantation.

How is Hepatitis C Recognized?

Taking into account the fact that the hep. C remains asymptomatic and masked, a significant percentage of incidents are discovered in acute stages. When a viral illness manifests itself and provokes complications, people seek medical help.

The validation of HCV infection includes:

  • Serological test for anti-HCV antibodies;
  • PCR for RNA of the HCV;
  • the recognition of the genotypes of HCV (there are six main types).

The standard anti-HCV test (ELISA) must be confirmed by the recombinant immunoblot test (RIBA) or the detection of the RNA (PCR). As RNA analysis can show false-negative results it should be repeated.

When hep. C is confirmed, tests to indicate the degree and type of liver injury are done. Such tests as Fib-4, Geno-FibroTest, FibroMax, and AST to Platelet Ratio Index, indicate the estimation of fibrosis. Biopsy, US, or magnetic resonance elastography assess the level of hepatic cirrhosis.

Anti-HCV IgM antibodies allow differing ongoing process from carriers.

The chance of getting infected and going through hepatitis C is about 10-20%. A person may become a carrier of the HCV. The virus reproduces itself in hepatic cells, but do not harm the host. There are no complaints and indications of deficiency even in laboratory tests and liver biopsy.

Medical cure

Therapy is not always needed, as 15-45% of infected patients recover without examination and treatment. The purposes of the therapy are to cure a patient, exclude spreading of the virus, normalize the hepatic function, and to avert fibroid induration (cirrhosis) and liver cell carcinoma, and increase the quality of life and chances of survival. Patients with a persistent form of hep. C must be examined for immune bodies to other types of hepatitis (practically A and B) and HIV.

Cure of hep. C infection involves:

  • lifestyle changes;
  • taking medicines.

Lifestyle changes include eating a healthy diet, regular exercises sport, avoiding smoking. The person should have hisher own personal accessories such as washing things, razors, hair removal unit, nail grooming kit and hair picks. Patients with hepatitis C should stop drinking alcohol as it advances the progress of liver insufficiency and may result in coma.

The selection of drugs and regime of treatment depend on the genotype. The answer to antiviral therapy is higher on acute stage. The protocols and regimes of care for hep. C are changing quickly: the most helpful combinations are to be discovered in the WHO protocols and guidelines. Antiviral cure is helpful in 50–90% of cases. It is best to discuss needed measures and drugs with a specialist.

Antiviral drugs can cure the illness, defeat the HCV, and avert cirrhosis or hepatic cancer. Medical cure lasts for 2 months to 2 years. The effectiveness of the drugs is assessed on the basis of the reduction of viral load and the level of hepatic enzymes. Transplantation is the option in case of life-threatening sequelae.


The hepatitis C vaccine is not designed. Scientists fail to identify a stable protein, specific for all subspecies of the HCV, to synthesize preventive substances against it. The measures of warning include adhering to the directions for sterilizing/cleaning instruments in health-care settings, the use of barrier contraception sheath during sexual relation, checking of the blood supplies and regular medical checkups.


  1. Manns, Michael P., et al. “Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial.” The Lancet 358.9286 (2001): 958-965.
  2. Poynard, Thierry, et al. “Randomised trial of interferon α2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon α2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus.” The Lancet 352.9138 (1998): 1426-1432.
  3. Knodell, Robert G., et al. “Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis.” Hepatology 1.5 (1981): 431-435.

How to Beat Stress in Life



Stress Essays

Stress is an emotion that’s created when people reflect to particular events. It’s the human body’s approach of escalating to a challenge and preparing to overcome a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina and alertness. The key elements that aggravate stress are called “stressors”. The stressors encompass a whole range of situations that includes everything from clear physical danger to biological events. For example, a student who has to create a class presentation or take a seminar especially on a toughest subject undergoes a stress that may reflect in the presentation.

The key element that stressed the student may be the toughness of the subject, lack of enough information in the subject and altogether lack of self confidence. Is it possible to generate a less stressful lifestyle in the everyday mayhem of a mechanical life? According to a recent survey conducted by the National Institutes of Mental Health it was concluded that more than 19 million American adults have fretfulness disorder, while about 18. 8 million experience stress from depression. The survey was conducted with cases who were 5 years – 80 years old respective to their gender.

It’s not an issue why many people are so stressed out in a routine life especially when it is mechanical. People work continuously stretching for more than 40 hours at times, with frantic schedules making that makes them experience stress. Most of them are unable them to find themselves peaceful in such chaotic lives due to stress. However, a slight feel of stress may be good in daily life, conceivably to help motivate people to obtain their goals or maybe to co-ordinate the human system with certain hormones and keep it balanced with adrenaline (stress hormone).

It’s certainly bad to have too much stress but it’s bad to have too little as well. People should undergo this process to make them feel bad to feel good, perhaps little hardship equals little happiness. Stress can help one value better times. How to cope and keep stress under control What can be done to deal with excess stress to avoid it? The best way to deal with excess stress is to learn how to manage the stress and take it as a new challenge to overcome it with stress management skills. This aspect of stress management works best when they are implied often and not just when the pressure’s come on the way.

Adequate knowledge on how to de-stress and accomplish it when things are fairly calm can help a person get through tough circumstances that may arise. Here are some strategies that can help out keep stress under control. Avoid Over Scheduling: A person is not a machine but performs mechanical attributes to keep the person stressful. It is a must for every person to set up a task that is against over scheduling. If a feeling / task are stretched, regard it as two parts adopting the ones that are most important to keep stress free self.

Be realistic: Each person has his own reputation so its better try to be better than to be the best. Every person has their own expectations to be perfect but this may reflect on the person’s stress level. The person should be realistic to learn things and perhaps know where to go to find out perfect solutions. A good night’s sleep & Relaxation: This is one of the essential components for a human being to cope up with stress. With enough sleep, a person can help his body system and mind in best shape making them feel better and get prepared to compact with any negative stressors.

It’s a fact that the biological system is a sleep clock that swings during various stages of life. For example, at adolescence, many teens desire staying up a little later at night and sleeping a little later in the morning. But staying up late with a need to get up early in the morning for school may lead to stress because of lack of all the hours of sleep the person may need. Therefore sleep should be the best strategy to keep 50 % of the stress par from a routine life. Relaxation is a body’s natural antidote to stress is called the relaxation response.

It’s a person’s system that contributes against stressors and creates a sense of well-being and composed. The main impact of the relaxation response is that it can be triggered simply by relaxing. A person can activate the relaxation response by learning simple breathing exercises and then use them when they are trapped up in stressful situations. It can ensure a person to stay relaxed by building time into certain schedules for various activities that can make them feel calm and pleasurable.

Reading a good book or making time for a hobby, spending time with pets, or just taking a relaxing bath can keep the stress away from the daily life. Understand and treat the body system well: Many experts have focused on the aspects of regular exercise that contributes people to manage stress. Excessive or compulsive exercise can contribute to stress but doing moderate exercises can keep the stress far away. Many models practice aerobics and treat their system as stress scavengers and make them feel confident for their profession. A good diet intake also helps the body get the right fuel to function at its best.

People often tend to consume junk foods when they are stressed but researchers say that under stressful conditions, the body needs its vitamins and minerals more than ever to cope up with stress. Therefore taking a good diet with fruits and vegetables as the major source may in turn adapt the system to ease up with tension. Although many people take alcohol or drugs to overcome stress, it may seem to lift the stress temporarily; relying on them to cope up with stress actually promotes more stress because alcohol and drugs wears down the body’s capacity to bounce back.

Keep thoughts watchful: This is the best way to cope up with stress by having an outlook on the thoughts that flows in the mind to influence on the day to day things. For example, take this question; Is this cup half full or half empty? Optimism is always the best strategy that can help a person feel their best under stressful conditions. Even if a person is a bit / tend to be more pessimistic, it can be overcome by reflecting events that were successful in their life and avoid stress. It is good if everyone can learn to think more optimistically and reap the benefits.

Problem solving: To keep a person de-stressed is when the person learns to solve everyday problems and have a sense of control on things happening around him. In the same way avoiding such problems can make a person feel to have little control on them self, which in turn adds to stress. Therefore, development of problem solving skill can make the person calmly look at a problem, figure out the options, and take some action to find a solution. Feeling capable of solving little problems builds the inner confidence to move on to life’s bigger ones and it can serve well in times of stress.

Above all the things mentioned here, limiting procrastination is a key in controlling stress. Any person should follow the above mentioned strategies now and them and learn how to focus on a stress free life. CONCLUSION All of us wish to lead a happy and a healthy life but it often ignored that stress can spoil a healthy life. More stress can lead to tension and in turn to heart attacks something which is most prevalent among people above 35 years old. It should be always remembered to promote a positive influence in all walks of life and abide by the rules of nature and destiny.

The best of all is to feeling connected with the community and each person should take up the responsibility to do something good for those around and for oneself. The BEST key to cope up with stress is happiness that seems to retain a positive outlook as well as participating in humanitarian deeds. Any person can be stress free being a philanthropist. Build Resilience: Certain people seem to adapt quickly to stressful circumstances and take things in stride; they seem to be cool, easy going, down to earth even under pressure and are capable enough to handle problems as they come up.

Researchers have recognized the traits that make some people seem naturally resilient even when faced with high levels of stress. A person can become resilient by developing certain attitudes and behaviors such as belief on changes as a challenging and normal part of life, to see setbacks and tribulations as temporary and solvable, to believe that success comes when planning meets action, to take actions that can solve problems that often crop up, build strong relationships and keep commitments to family and friends, have a support system that can always render help, participate regularly in activities for relaxation and fun.

It’s always the best way to learn to think of challenges as opportunities and stressors as temporary problems and not disasters. Practicing problem solving and asking help from others for guidance can confront the complaints of stress. Set goals and keep track on achieving the goal. “Believe in one-self & Be sure to take deep breaths often”


  • Teens Health answers and advice http://kidshealth. org/teen/your_mind/emotions/stress. html
  • visit www. clevelandclinic. org/health/
  • Stress and Your HealthThe New York Times takes a close look at health and lifestyle issueswww. nytimes. com
  • Stress Understand Your Doctor. Free Health Information Online. www. healthline. com
  • Teen Stress Journal on supporting successful adolescent developmentwww. TPRonline. org
  • Understand, Prevent and Resolve Life’s Challenges – Source http://www. helpguide. org/mental/stress_management_relief_coping. htm

What are Probiotics?



Probiotics are microorganisms (bacteria or fungus), that cause positive influence on the health of the host when used in appropriate amount. Food products, medicines and nutritional supplements contain “good” microorganisms. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Saccharomyces boulardii and several strains of Escherichia coli are the most commonly used probiotics.

The minimum criteria for probiotic pills are:

  • The supplement is ought to be determined by class and strain – investigations of specific strains cannot be applied to any product declared as probiotic.
  • Microorganisms must be alive.
  • The strains must be contained in an adequate dose.
  • The efficacy must be proven by controlled studies in patients.

Before the products with probiotic go on sale, the proper documentation confirming its positive influence on health must be presented. Results of studies and review articles on certain strains cannot be used as proof of the efficiency and safeness of unexplored strains. Certain carrier substances/fillers should as well be taken into account in the matter of potency.

How do probiotic pills work?

The essential aspects of the cooperation of probiotic strains with the inner flora are the formation of protective compounds against hostile agents, competition for nutrients and the places of adhesion, shifts in microbial metabolism, boosting the immunity, anti-cancer and anti-cholesterolemic effects.

Inner flora, obtained with probiotic agents, protects the host from hostile agents, and forms a front line of mucosal defense. Due to successful competition for essential nutrients or attachment sites, probiotics prevent pathogenic colonization. Forming antimicrobial substances, energy-dependent fatty and chemically modified bile acids, intestinal flora create a local environment that is unfavorable for the life of evil agents. Probiotic pills stimulate the recovery of the immune cells, which form a second layer of protection

Why take probiotics?

The benefits of probiotics:

  • increased efficiency of the local and systemic immune system;
  • preventing numerous infections;
  • warning of the attachment of adverse bacteria to the enteric wall;
  • the suppression of the growth of hostile agents;
  • destroying toxins;
  • producing vitamins B;
  • helping in digesting food;
  • competition for nutrients with pathogenic agents;
  • elimination of superoxide radicals.

Probiotic pills are used to restore intestinal flora after using antibiotics. It is a perfect solution to strengthen immunity in case of frequent catarrhal diseases and to fill a deficiency of vitamins K, H or B. While taking with breastfeeding and in case of intolerance to lactose probiotic pills contribute to lactose digestion. Probiotics reduce the ingress of substances that cause food allergies into the blood.

What is probiotics?

Probiotics are biologically active food supplements and are not monitored by the FDA. There are no unified standards for supplements, that is, the probiotic pills are made differently according to numerous rules established by manufacturers and have various additives. Probiotic pills also vary in cost, and the price does not describe the excellence.

Types of probiotics

The probiotic supplements are released in such form:

  • Dry substances. A dry probiotic is available in powders, pills or capsules. It takes 24 hours to activate the dry probiotic. This type of product is perfect for course reception and preventive use.
  • Yeast. Barms are used to prepare yogurt or kefir, perfectly complement the daily diet, and can be added to baby food to prevent diseases and maintain the level of flora after treatment.
  • Liquid. Probiotics in liquid form have a momentary result. The supplements have a short shelf life, so they are not purchased for stock, the liquid is ideal for an emergency.

According to reviews, the best probiotics are Islands Miracle Ultra-30 Probiotics, MegaFood MegaFlora, Dr. Formulas Nexabiotic Advanced Multi-Probiotic, Primal Defense Ultra, Nutrition Essentials and Vitamin Bounty Pro 50.

Hints for safe use

Here are some hints to help you choose the best probiotic:

  • Read the label. The more detailed information is on the label, the better. Ideally, the sticker should include information about the kinds of used strains.
  • Find out strains. Unluckily, many stickers lack information about the present strain, many just list the species. If you plan to take probiotic pills for certain goals, investigate which strains are used and added to the supplements and whether there are articles that prove their usefulness for health.
  • Purchase supplements of well-known companies. The longer the manufacturer exists, the more likely that the products are inspected and re-examined, and the more will mean the reputation of the company.

It is considered that probiotics are safe; nevertheless, it is not known whether they can be consumed by patients with immune system disorders. Probiotic pills are safe for people who do not suffer from digestive dysfunction. The safeness of supplements is obvious, as they are used in dairy products for a long period of time.

Before including probiotic supplements in a diet, one should consult a doctor. Probiotic tablets may be unacceptable for the elderly. The result of the impact of probiotic on the action of medications or the interaction with them is unknown. The doctor helps to decide whether probiotics are necessary in accordance with the history of the disease.


  • Irianto, Agus, and Brian Austin. “Probiotics in aquaculture.” Journal of fish diseases 25.11 (2002): 633-642.
  • Ishibashi, Norio, and Shoji Yamazaki. “Probiotics and safety–.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 73.2 (2001): 465s-470s.
  • Borchers, Andrea T., et al. “Probiotics and immunity.” Journal of gastroenterology 44.1 (2009): 26-46.

Daphnia Experiment




In this experiment I aim to find out if caffeine has an effect on the heart rate of daphnia. Daphnia are water fleas that have a sort of heart that we can see in magnification. We can count the number of heart beats in a minute of a regular daphnia and try and get a new one with the same specifications as the old one that may have died. It is also a good idea to get a new one as we want to see how much it affects it from ordinary instead of adding the caffeine one after another. We have to be careful not to feed too much caffeine to the daphnia only a maximum of 1% as we may not be able to get a reading due to it dying. Planning


There is a correlation between concentration of caffeine solution and the heart rate of Daphnia. In this experiment, when the concentration of caffeine solution increases, the heart rate of Daphnia increases. Null Hypothesis

There is no correlation between concentration of caffeine solution and the heart rate of Daphnia. Scientific basis for the hypothesis Caffeine acts as a stimulant drug, causing increased amounts of stimulatory neurotransmitters to be released. At high levels of consumption caffeine has been linked to restlessness insomnia and anxiety, causing raised stress and blood pressure. Statistical Test

Student’s T-test: it is used for continuous data because it shows a difference between the independent and dependent variable.

After working out my student-t test, my calculated value for t is greater than the critical value of t. If it is greater it states that I will need to reject my null hypothesis. This means that I can accept my hypothesis.


The independent variable for the experiment is the presence of 5% caffeine that’s given to the daphnia which can be changed by adding a drop each time. The dependent variable is the heart rates of the daphnia which can be measured by finding the heart beat for 10s then multiply it by 6 to get it for 1 minute. This can be done by dotting the paper to count the heart beat. The controlled variable throughout the experiment are:

Temperature: if the temperature is high than it might change the heart rate. This can be controlled by using water bath. The daphnia should be on the slide for the same amount of time: this is because the heart increases the heart rate. Use similar size daphnia: the smaller the daphnia have a higher rate than bigger daphnia. The amount of water: dilute the caffeine solution.

In some experiments there are some limitations. These are the following: the heat produced when the lamp is on cannot be handled and might be the reason for the heart rate to increase the heart rate might increase because of the effort of the daphnia that is trying to escape from the cotton wool.

Equipment (other than standard glassware etc…)


Cotton Wool


O.5% caffeine solution

Dechlorinated water


In this experiment there are the following risks both for the lab partner that carries out the experiment and the daphnia: 1. We both should be cautious not to touch the lamp with wet hands since it uses electricity. 2. Also, be careful not to spill any of the pond water on the floor. 3. As for the daphnia, there is a chance for them to die as when they are exposed to light, they are also exposed to heat in which they aren’t used to.

Ethical Issues

It should be understood that any experiment involving living organism always rises up bioethical issues. While performing experiment involving living organism can bring greater advances in science, it should not be forgotten

that the well-being of the living organisms involved in the experiment should be taken care of, so that they do not suffer for the experiment or at least their sufferings are minimized. Therefore, the Daphnia being used in the experiment ought to be treated with great care to avoid hurting or even killing them. If possible, the Daphnia should be returned back to their natural habitat after the experiment so that they can return to their normal lives. Method

  1. These are the steps that we followed when doing the experiment:
  2. Use fresh Daphnia for each different caffeine solution.
  3. Use a pipette to transfer the daphnia to a cavity slide containing pond water of known volume.
  4. Add some cotton wool to the cavity slide and place it in a way that the daphnia can’t move.
  5. Turn the microscope lamp on and locate the heart of the daphnia through the microscope.
  6. In a pair one will use a stopwatch to count 10 seconds which is the time during which the other person will measure the heart beat by dotting the beats onto a piece of paper.
  7. Measure the beat rate.
  8. Repeat steps 1-6 about 2 or 3 times and get an average without caffeine then after 6 readings repeat the steps with caffeine.
  9. Clean the cavity slide using a tissue and make sure there is no pond water left.


In conclusion the heart rate of the daphnia increased when caffeine was added. From the graph it suggests that there is a significant difference between the heart rate without caffeine and with caffeine. The highest the heart rate per minute without caffeine was 306 beats which increased by 84 beats per minute when caffeine was added. When standard error (SE) bars do not overlap, you cannot be sure that the difference between two means is statistically significant. Even though the error bars do not overlap in the experiment, the difference is not statistically significant. Also as the concentration of caffeine increases, heart rate of Daphnia increases for caffeine concentration up to 0.5% because caffeine is a stimulant which raises the heart rate of animals. Assumption that a similar effect would result in human can be made.

However, some the results from the graph varied because we didn’t use the same size daphnia. Some of them were either pregnant or were having babies which could have affected the results because the bigger the daphnia the bigger the surface area the higher the heart rate. To improve the experiment I would have repeated the test three times in order to obtain higher accuracy. Random errors could be minimised in this way. Tapping a pencil on a piece of paper and count up the pencil marks at the end of the time period was a method which is more primitive and errors are more likely to occur because some pencil marks may be too close together and cause confusion in counting the number pencil mark.

The limited caffeine concentration for Daphnia is about 1%. That means high concentration of caffeine solution should not used for Daphnia may die of it. Hence, the highest concentration of caffeine solution used in the experiment is only 0.5%. There are a few unavoidable limitations in this experiment which may affect the accuracy of the results. The following are the limitations and their respective improvements: Temperature of the environment of the Daphnia is one of the factors that affect the heart rate of it. Prolong exposure of the Daphnia to the microscope light will overheat the Daphnia. To prevent the Daphnia from overheating, the microscope light should be turned off between observations and a heat sink should be used.

Heart beat of Daphnia can be very fast when caffeine solution was added. Missing a few beats when counting the heart beat or beating of legs is almost inevitable. An improvement to this is to set a video camera above the eyepiece so that the heart beat of Daphnia is recorded. Later, the video can be played in slow motion with the timeline of the video displaying on the screen. This helps to obtain a more accurate heart beat rate.

Since the Daphnia is not observed under its natural habitat, its stressed level in the experiment may be higher than usual. This might cause a change in its heart rate or an undesired change in the heart rate. The only thing to be done is to count the heart beat of the Daphnia as soon as it is ready to be observed.

Daphnia are selected as the model in this experiment as they are fairly easy to keep and the transparent body allows easy observation of changes in heart rate under a microscope without having to dissect it. On the minus side, experimenters have to be extremely cautious when dealing with them because they are delicate and vulnerable. Generally, when the concentration of caffeine solution increases, the heart rate of Daphnia increases. Prolong exposure of Daphnia to caffeine can result in the building up of tolerance of Daphnia towards caffeine.

Homeostasis: Burn Victim



You are working in a hospital and you are instructed to care for a burn victim. Answer the following questions related to their wounds. A first degree burn only injures the epidermis, a second degree burn has extended through the dermis, and a third degree burn extends as far down as the hypodermis. Use this information to answer the questions by considering where the burn is and what happens in that skin layer. Why does a first or second degree burn hurt more than a third degree burn? Third degree burn affects the nerves where one might not feel as much pain as a first or second degree burn.

Which of the three types of burns will heal the fastest and why? A first degree burn will heal the fastest because the epidermis is only affected. Areas affected by second degree burns can heal almost completely, but often have a slight discoloration, which is enhanced by sunlight. Why might this be? The ultra violent rays of the sun overtime can affect the skin and cause discoloration. If your victim has extensive second degree burns, these body functions would be affected. Explain why they would be affected and how.

Hydration The heat can cause someone to become dehydrated . Temperature Control High amounts of heat can cause the body to become overheated and harder to control a stable temperature Infections Second degree burns is like a wound and someone can be more prone to bacteria entering the body and causing infection. Vitamin D Homeostasis (application-5) Think of three basic body functions that are controlled by negative feedback and homeostasis. In your own words, what is the basic function of these things: Sensor: Control Center: Effector:

Controlled Variable| What happens when this variable is too high to bring it down? | What happens when this variable is too low to bring it up? | Temperature| Hydrate the body to bring it down| Try to keep warm or enter a warmer climate. | Oxygen level| Long deep breaths to regulate the respiratory system. | Run in place and fast speed to the heart pumping. | Blood sugar| Eat a gluten free diet. | Eat something containing sugar example Orange or Banana. | Blood pressure| Stay relaxed and stress free. | | What kind of feedback is related to blood clotting and why is this so?

Informative Speech About Tattoos



Essays about Tattoos

It seems like everyone has one these days. What used to be the property of sailors, outlaws, and biker gangs is now a popular body decoration for many people. And it’s not just anchors, skulls, and battleships anymore, from school emblems to Celtic designs to personalized symbols; people have found many ways to express themselves with them. Maybe you’ve thought about getting one. Well before you head down to the nearest tattoo shop and roll up your sleeve, there are a few things you need to know.

So You Ask, What Exactly is a Tattoo?

A tattoo is a puncture wound, made deep in your skin, that’s filled with ink. The tattoo is made by penetrating your skin with a needle and injecting ink into the area creating some sort of design of your choosing. The thing that makes tattoos so long lasting is the fact that they’re so deep, the ink isn’t injected into the epidermis (the top layer of skin that you continue to produce and shed throughout your lifetime). Instead, the ink is injected into the dermis, which is the second, deeper layer of skin. Dermis cells are very stable, so the tattoo is practically permanent.

Most tattoo shops these days use a tattoo machine, which is a handheld electric instrument that uses a tube and needle system. One end is a sterilized needle, which is attached to tubes that contain ink. A foot switch is used to turn on the machine, which moves the needle in and out while driving the ink about 1/8 inches into your skin. Getting a tattoo can take several hours, depending on the size and design.

Does it Hurt to Get a Tattoo?

Getting a tattoo can be very painful, but the level of pain can vary, depending on your pain threshold, how good the artist is with the machine, and the location of the tattoo. Because getting a tattoo involves being stuck multiple times with a needle, it can fell like getting a bunch of shots or being stung by a hornet multiple times. Some people describe it as “tingling. ” But again, it all depends on your own personal pain threshold as to how it will feel to you. If You’re Thinking About Getting a Tattoo…. There’s one very important thing you must keep in mind, getting it done safely. Although it looks a lot cooler than a big scab, a new tattoo is also a wound and like any other scrape, puncture, cut or penetration to your skin, a tattoo is at risk for infections and disease.

You need to make sure you are up to date with your immunizations (especially hepatitis and tetanus shots) and plan where you will get medical care if your new tattoo does become infected. Signs of infection include excessive redness or tenderness, prolonged bleeding, pus, or changes in your skin color around the tattoo. If you have a medical problem such as heart disease, allergies, diabetes, skin disorders or any condition that affects your immune system or are prone to infections, you should ask your doctor before deciding to get a tattoo.

Also, if you are prone to getting keloids (an overgrowth of scar tissue in the area of the wound), it’s probably best to avoid getting a tattoo altogether. Avoiding Infection It’s very important to make sure the tattoo studio is clean and safe, and that all equipment is disposable (needles, gloves, masks, etc. ) and that everything is sterilized. You can call your state, county, or local health department to ask for recommendations on licensed tattoo shops, or to ask about any complaints about a particular studio.

Professional studios take pride in their cleanliness; here are a few things to check for: Make sure the studio has an autoclave which is a device that uses steam, pressure, and heat for sterilization. Check to make sure the tattoo artist is a licensed practitioner; if they are they should be able to provide you with references. Be sure the studio follows the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Universal Precautions. These are specific rules and regulations that outline procedures to be followed when dealing with bodily fluids such as blood.

If the studio looks unclean or if anything looks out of the ordinary, or if you feel in any way uncomfortable, you should find another place to get your tattoo. What to Expect Here’s what you can expect from a normal tattooing procedure: The tattooist will wash his or her hands with germicidal soap. The area to be tattooed will be cleaned and disinfected. The tattooist will put on clean, fresh gloves and maybe a mask. The tattooist will explain the sterilization procedure and open up the single-use sterilized equipment. With the tattoo machine the tattooist will begin drawing an outline of the tattoo under your skin.

The outline will be cleaned with antiseptic soap and water. Sterile, thicker needles will be installed on the tattoo machine, and the tattooist will start shading the design. After cleaning the area again, color will be injected. A new bottle of ink should be opened for each individual. Any blood will be removed by a sterile, disposable cloth or towel. When finished the area will be cleaned once again and a bandage will be applied. Taking Care of your New Tattoo The last step in getting your tattoo is very important; taking care of the tattoo until it fully heals.

Follow all of the instructions the studio gives you for caring for your tattoo to make sure it heals properly. Also, keep in mind that it’s very important to call your doctor right away if you see or feel any signs of infection such as pain, spreading redness, swelling, or drainage of pus. To make sure your tattoo heals properly: Keep a bandage on the area for up to 24 hours (depending on the recommendations given at the studio) Avoid touching the tattooed area and do not pick at any scabs that may form. Wash the tattoo with an antibacterial soap (do not use alcohol or peroxide-they will dry out the tattoo).

Use a soft towel to dry the tattoo – just pat it dry and be sure not to rub it. If you do not have an allergy to antibiotic ointment, rub some into the tattoo. Don’t use petroleum jelly this can cause it to fade. Put an ice pack on the tattooed area if you see any redness or swelling. Try not to get the tattoo wet until it fully heals. Stay away from pools, hot tubs, or long, hot baths. Keep your tattoo away from the sun until it’s fully healed. Even after it’s healed, it’s best to keep the tattoo out of direct sunlight to keep it from fading. So Is It Worth It? Is getting a tattoo worth the money and hassle? It’s entirely up to you.

Some people really enjoy their tattoos and are happy to keep them for life, whereas others might regret that they acted on impulse and didn’t think about it long enough before they got one. Getting a tattoo is a big deal, especially since they’re designed to be permanent. If you’ve thought about it and do decide you want a tattoo, make sure you do a little detective work and find a clean, safe, and professional tattoo shop. Also, remember that getting and maintaining a tattoo involves responsibility; after you leave the tattoo shop; it’s up to you to protect and treat it to prevent infections and/or other complications.

Hospital Management Software Abstract



This project is aimed at developing a platform where all the hospitals, doctors and the ambulance services within a fixed area are brought under a single online application. Here anyone can access the application from anywhere at any time. The database stores the details of all the hospitals and doctors along with their specializations and consulting time slots. At once a person get access to this application all his previous and present medical records will be stored to the database. It also provides a 24 hours ambulance information facility.

Doctors logging in should be able to update their patients’ medical records and access their previous medical records. PROBLEM DEFINITION CASE I It is not a case that one person often visits the doctor. The treatment details of one patient in a hospital will not be available in another. For efficient medical assistance all the previous medical records of a patient should be available with his doctor. CASE II The doctor who suits best for our requirements cannot be simply recognized from one hospital alone. The fields in which each doctor specializes may vary.

They may be working in different hospitals too. CASE III It is not that easy to identify the nearest ambulance service. All these details cannot be made available as a database for one hospital alone. PROPOSED SYSTEM All the above stated difficulties can be managed by the proposed system where we can integrate all the hospitals within a fixed area. In our database, the details of all the doctors in these hospitals along with their specializations can be stored. A person in need can access to this application and get appointment with a doctor whom they wish to consult.

All his previous medical records and treatment details will be stored by the doctor for future references. There will be an id generated for all the patients. And the doctors will be having a permanent id. A 24X7 ambulance information facility can provide each person with the information about the nearest ambulance service by using global positioning system. MODULES OF THE PROJECT * ADMINISTRATOR He has the privilege to access all the details in the database that are not visible to the users. All the details cannot be made available to the users, such as information about doctors.

The personal details of doctors are not supposed to be open to public. This is done to ensure security. Only the administrator can view and edit these details. * USER Whenever a user logins, a user id is given. Select the hospital and appropriate doctor from the search list. The time slot given can be compared and send request for appointment. Treatment details can be retrieved. Request for ambulance services can be made. * DOCTOR-LOGIN A doctor id is given whenever he logs in. Time slot is set for each doctor. Entering treatment details. Each patient id can be used to access his previous records.

* AMBULANCE DRIVER Each ambulance driver is given a particular id. A flag is used which is set when he is engaged and reset when he is free. Location is also entered. Use global positioning system. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Intel Dual core or i5 CPU 1. 80GHz RAM (SD/DDR): 4GB or above Hard disk: 500 GB or above SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Front end: ASP. net Back end: SQL Server Operating system: Windows 2008 Server/Professional or above Framework: . Net Framework 4. 0 Language: ASP. net, C# Database: SQL Server 2005 or 2008 Web server: IIS 5. 0 or above.