The effect of acute exercise on the Musculoskeletal, Energy, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Andrew White
There is an increase in blood supply as your body is working overtime. The blood supply has to increase because it has to go to the parts in your body which you are exercising the most e.g. If you are taking a run, the blood supply will increase because your legs will need more energy, therefore there will be more blood circulating your legs than normal because you are overworking them. Your muscles and all your body organs need more energy and oxygen; this is because your body is working more than usual. Your body needs to do many things such as sweat, which helps you cool down, and to get energy to all of your cells in your body to help you carry on exercising, if your body didn’t do this, you wouldn’t be able to carry on exercising.
During acute exercise your muscle pliability increases which allows a greater range of movement which helps reduce injury. Acute exercise will cause muscle fibre micro tears. This is generally known as micro-trauma. The myosin heads and the actin filaments will be pulled from the myofibrils. This damage will cause a release of chemicals that cause the soreness after your period of exercise. The chemicals released also stimulate repair and growth in the area to rebuild the tears in the muscle.
Energy systems response to acute exercise happens when the exercise is a high intensity, which is too much for the cardiovascular and respiratory system to deal with. The first response is to use the creatine phosphate energy system. This works in the fast-twitch muscle fibre of the muscles high energy creatine phosphate compounds which are able to break down extremely quickly to create large amounts of ATP. ATP is where we get the energy from to continue and this system only works for the first 10 to 20 seconds of exercise with 100% effort.
It is likely that the lactic acid system would provide energy at the start of any activity, even if the intensity is not enough for the aerobic system. If you go out on a jog, most of this is powered by the aerobic system, but the start of the jog it needs to create ATP so that the heart and lungs have enough oxygen and can saturate the blood before the aerobic system can kick in. When the heart and lungs have caught up with the movement of the activity and the intensity is low enough, then the aerobic energy system can fuel the body.
The Energy Continuum
The energy systems all work together to produce energy; however, what we are doing determines which energy system supplies the majority of the ATP. The energy continuum highlights which energy systems are producing the most amount of energy at different stages of an activity. At rest, nearly all of our energy is provided by the aerobic energy system; then, if we suddenly start to exercise, we need more ATP than the aerobic energy system can supply, so the phosphocreatine and lactic acid energy systems supply the ATP.
In some sport , the energy supply comes from all three energy systems at different points – for example, in football, when you are jogging slowly, the aerobic energy is used; for a short sprint to get to the ball, the phosphocreatine system is used; then running back down the pitch and running quickly to defend will mainly use the lactic acid energy system. Cardiovascular System
Your heart rate will begin to rise before you even start to exercise. Your brain realizes you are going to work out and releases adrenaline to speed up your heart in preparation for the upcoming exertion. This is called the anticipatory response. The heart rate will continue to rise in direct proportion to the intensity of exercise until maximum heart rate is achieved. Activity Response
At the start or just before the exercise, nerve centres in your brain detect cardiovascular activity. This results in adjustments that increase the rate and pumping strength of your heart. At the same time the regional blood flow is altered in proportion to the intensity of the activity undertaken. Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction during Exercise
Vasoconstriction occurs before exercise when the blood flow in the body is at a normal rate or when the body needs to supply specific areas of the body with more blood than others, for example in the 100m sprint the majority of the blood will be pumped to the legs, so other blood vessels will contract restricting blood flow to unused organs and muscles. Vasodilation occurs during exercise when the body needs to release heat through the skin and to get more blood to the organs and muscles that require the most blood during specific exercise. This is done to get more oxygen to the muscles, but to also get rid of more carbon dioxide. Respiratory System
When you are exercising your respiratory system responds by your breathing rate increases and you start to breathe heavily, this happens because your muscles need more oxygen so you breathe deep and quicker so a supply of oxygen can get to the muscles, also when you finish exercise your breathing rate will decrease and start to recover. Another response from the respiratory system is the tidal volume, which increases as a response to exercise this is because the muscle needs an increase of oxygen. Exercise causes an increase in tidal volume because your requirements for oxygen go up.
This increase is measured in different ways depending on when it occurs during your exercise. An increase in tidal volume is necessary to effectively meet your body’s increased oxygen requirements, as an increase in your rate of respiration alone is not sufficient. As well as the breathing rate and tidal volume, the pulmonary ventilation is also a response to exercise on the respiratory system. The pulmonary ventilation increases when the body starts to do exercise, this happens because like most of the other responses the muscles need more oxygen, there is also an increase in the removal of carbon dioxide.
There are two neural mechanisms that control respiration, one for voluntary breathing and one for involuntary breathing. The voluntary impulse originates in the cerebral cortex region of the brain and the automatic impulse originates in the medulla oblongata. There are chemoreceptors in the brain and the heart that sense the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and acid present in the body. As a result, they control the respiratory rate to compensate for any disruptions in the balance of any of these chemicals. Too much carbon dioxide or acidity and too little oxygen cause the respiratory rate to increase and vice versa.
World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF. World Health Organization, 2001.
Stoll, Thomas, et al. “ICF Core Set for patients with musculoskeletal conditions in the acute hospital.” Disability and rehabilitation 27.7-8 (2005): 381-387.
Chioléro, René, Jean-Pierre Revelly, and Luc Tappy. “Energy metabolism in sepsis and injury.” Nutrition 13.9 (1997): 45-51.
Your heart supplies the viscera and tissues with oxygen and nutritional support. When the blood goes into the vessels, they dilate, and then narrow again. This recurrent jerky vibration is called pulse. It can be palpated on large arteries of the carotid, radial, femoral and some others.
When the heart contractions become very powerful, you can experience an extremely strong throbbing throughout the body, called the bounding pulse. It is sensed like chattering or rapid heart rate. As a rule, body beating has a short duration. A passing condition should not bother you, but if this happens regularly, you should seek medical advice.
To date, most of the bounding pulses do not require medical assistance and pass on its own. But from time to time a body beating can indicate a malignant health condition that requires urgent medical aid.
Anxiety: a natural reaction to stressful conditions. Adrenaline and cortisone, stress hormones, accelerate heart contractions. If you have problems with stress and crisis, think about professional advice.
Pregnancy: due to high blood pressure and increased blood circulation (since the mother carries the weight of her own and baby’s circulatory systems and delivery waters), your heart should beat more intense and faster.
Fever: increasing the heart rate per beat per minute corresponds to an increase in temperature of 0.1℃ (0.25°F)
Heart failure: the heart is unable to provide satisfactory blood supply and is forced to contract faster.
Anemia: is characterized by a drop in the number of healthy red blood cells and hemoglobin. As a result, tissues do not get enough oxygen.
Abnormal or irregular cardiac rhythms: arrhythmia occurs when electrical impulses that initiate heart contractions are not functioning correctly, causing the heart to beat too fast or too slowly or irregularly.
Hyperthyroidism: occurs when the thyroid gland produces too many hormones and can provoke hypertension and a strong pulse.
Hypertension: blood vessels become stiff and rigid, and the heart needs to strain the muscles to push the same volume of blood.
Aortic valve insufficiency: when the aortic valve is damaged, some amount of blood comes back to the heart chambers, and your heart contracts intensively to accelerate blood circulation.
Cardiopathy: the cardiac walls become rigid and cannot contract.
Digitalis toxicity: condition occurs when the patient takes too many pills used to treat heart disease. To supply your tissues with oxygen, the heart begins to pump faster.
Patent ductus arteriosus
You might feel that your heart is pumping faster and forcefully than usual. You might feel the pulse in your neck, hands, or even your whole body. You can easily palpate it on your arm or throat, and sometimes even see pulsating vessels under your skin. You might also feel like your heart beating is irregular, or that it might miss or add extra strokes.
Most of the bounding pulse goes back and forth for a short period of time and does not cause problems. Emergency medical aid is needed if you have a CVD in your medical history or if the bounding pulse is related to the following symptoms:
Labored breathing and apnea
Unconsciousness, stiffness, pressure, heaviness or pain in your neck, jaw, hands, precordial region, or upper back
These signs might be hits of a heart attack. Do not ignore them!
Diagnosis and treatment
Bounding pulse might give an idea of the main reason, but often this happens without any trigger. Preliminary history might also allow your GP to narrow down the proposed health problems. Palpation of the thyroid gland might be useful in overcoming off hyperthyroidism. First, CBC and simple urine test are recommended.
Another test might include:
Hormone Panel. The test is performed to calculate the rate of various hormones and exclude the hormonal dysregulations.
ECG and echocardiogram. The procedures are ordered to identify the function of the heart muscle, the validity of operation and possible valve diseases.
Usually, medical care is not required if your bounding pulse is not caused by any medical disorder.
Stress and anxiety are part of everyday life, and learning about its relief can be important. Use the following hints to reduce stress:
Normalize the weight of your body. The excess weight might lead to bounding pulse, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Walk regularly and join a gym or a swimming pool to lose weight and release endorphins. Thus, you will feel happier and relaxed.
Get along with others and join local circles to keep motivated.
Laugh more often.
Spend time with beloved.
Improve your sleep to brighten your mood and help your body and brain relax.
Limit the amount of caffeine and energy drinks.
Turn to a nutrition advisor to improve your diet.
Avoid alcohol and reasonless medication.
Meditate to calm your mind.
Ask your GP about stimulant medications that you can take and about any alternative options. Strive to adopt a healthy lifestyle and to avoid any conceivable causes of pulsations in the neck.
Raval, Mehul V., et al. “Patent ductus arteriosus ligation in premature infants: who really benefits, and at what cost?.” Journal of pediatric surgery 42.1 (2007): 69-75.
Durando, Mary M., and Lesley Elissa Young. “Cardiovascular examination and diagnostic techniques.” Current Therapy in Equine Medicine (Fifth Edition). 2003. 572-585.
Frykberg, Robert G. “A summary of guidelines for managing the diabetic foot.” Advances in Skin & Wound Care 18.4 (2005): 209-214.
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A famous proverb “One apple a day keeps a doctor away” is not that topical in our everyday world. Sometimes vitamins cannot help unless a person understands the origin of some body symptoms. Moreover, the Internet is so overwhelmed with the information about health, that the necessary data gets lost. That is why we have decided to create a useful page with all the symptoms with a short description to each.
By reading this information, you may easily identify which health problem is related to the symptoms. Our body gives us lots of signs which we need to read and understand. Unless you know this information, the illness may deteriorate in due course. It means that people have to pay attention to what their body feels. Whether it is a pain, discomfort, weird tingling, you have to determine the cause of it. By understanding a true reason, it will be much easier to eradicate the disease from its core.
Before going to the doctor, try to identify which possible reason for symptoms you may have. Find your problem on this page below, select it, and read a short description. There you may find an explanation of the symptom and its relation to other more serious illnesses. Analyze possible causes which are mentioned and underline those which are more likely to be related to your health problem. By identifying this information, it will be easier to select the doctor’s specialization for further investigation.
The abdominal pain can be acute, nagging, dull, even excruciating. It is quite difficult to identify the reason if you know that no bad food, poor diet, strong stresses have caused it. First of all, identify the location of the pain. Then, determine which organs are placed there. The most frequent reason is related to eating bad, spoiled food, or ingredients which do not match for proper digestion. If you do not remember eating something harmful for the last 24 hours, it can be a more serious situation. Also, you can check whether the pain is not coming from the appendix. If it is inflamed, the pain comes from the lower right part of you stomach (close to the right hip). Appendicitis should be treated with the help of surgery. Do not drink any medications before the doctor arrives.
Possible Causes: spoilt food, indigestion, gastritis.
Possible Treatment: Antacids, Antibiotics.
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The most common reason for having an arm pain refers to strained muscles somewhere in the elbow or shoulder. If you have been going in for sport, you might even haven’t noticed when you strained the muscles. Sometimes it happens because of the adrenaline. But when you get home, the muscles remind you of training too much.
Wrist pain can be even related to using the computer mouse or the keyboard. There are even an illnesses called Wrist Canal Syndrome. You need to trace back your day to understand the reason for the arm pain. It can be caused even by everyday activity such as typing, talking on the phone, lifting something heavy. If the pain does not stop but gets worse, it is efficient to take the X-ray investigation of the injured part.
Possible Causes: injury, Tunnel Syndrome, crick.
Possible Treatment: resting the injured part, ice, compression, NSAIDS.
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Back pain is a pervasive problem. It is important not to ignore it to prevent serious illnesses which may make the everyday life focused on the back pain solely. The pain can be located along the spine beginning from the neck. Sitting position, lack of sport, incorrect posture of sitting, stress are the most common reasons for this. The spine is a very strong part of the body because it holds its weight. While sleeping, it renovates the length of the spine because during the daytime it descends under the weight of the body. Another possible reason is related to lifting something heavy. If you cannot lean to your toes, you may have ruptured disks. To treat this, you will need to go to the doctor. Such a nagging pain results from the inflamed spine nerves around the ruptured disks.
Possible Causes: Osteoarthritis, injuries, arthritis.
Possible Treatment: NSAIDs, massages.
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The symptom of body aches can be related to various reasons. It is characterized by the feeling of discomfort in bones, muscles, and overall exhaustion. To understand the cause of this state, consider what you have been doing during the say. Body aches can be caused by stress or going in for sport. Sometimes you need to have a rest and give your body some relaxation. If there is no reasonable situation which can explain your state, take the temperature. If it is higher than normal. Go to a doctor to continue the medical investigation.
Possible Causes: stress, exhaustion, flu.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, aspirin.
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The pain in breast is located in the upper part of the corps. Breast discomfort usually belongs to hormonal reasons. For women, it is a normal situation to feel it because of the upcoming menstruation. Lots of hormones function in the breast tissues causing various feelings. If the pain is not strong, it will disappear soon. However, if it causes lots of discomfort and gets worse, you need to go to the doctor. Sometimes even small tumors can cause such feelings. It is even recommended to visit the gynecologist regularly to make sure that there are no problems with breasts.
Possible Causes: impact of hormones, tumor
Possible Treatment: NSAIDS, prescribed treatment.
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If a person has difficulties with breathing suddenly, it is significant to free clothes of this man. An unpredictable cough can be caused by stranglehold. If a man is eating something and suddenly has a problem with breathing, some food can be stuck in the respiratory truck. If the man chokes, another man has to help him get this thing out. Another reason for breathing difficulty refers to an allergic reaction, flu, asthma. If an individual has such problems from time to time, it is significant to identify the specific illnesses. According to it, the doctor will prescribe the necessary treatment.
Possible Causes: flu, choking, asthma, allergy.
Possible Treatment: fresh air, inhalers, prescribed antibiotics.
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The heart also belongs to this part. Sometimes people cannot identify whether the pain comes from muscles or the organs. It feels somewhere in the center, and you cannot take a deep breath. It can be related to the heart muscles. Usually, this feeling appears because of doing abrupt movements or sitting in an uncomfortable position. If the pain does not disappear in several minutes and your overall well-being gets worse, call the doctor.
If the feeling reminds of burning, the chest pain can be caused by angina. Take temperature to understand whether it is true.
Possible Causes: muscle contraction, angina.
Possible Treatment: relaxing, aspirin, prescribed antibiotics.
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The most common type of congestion is a nasal one. It is a normal reaction of the body on getting cold. Excess mucus and secretions are kept in the air passages and block normal breathing via nostrils. It can be treated at home by drinking warm tea, water, and taking nose drops which will not treat but alleviate the symptoms. If the congestion gets more chronic than occasional, it is a signal of possible complications. Sometimes it can even lead to sinusitis or other serious illnesses. The doctor will help with all the symptoms if the patient comes on time.
Possible Causes: flu, sinusitis.
Possible Treatment: nasal spray.
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A cough is a natural method of clearing the throat if something irritates it. There are two types of cough: dry and wet. Analyzing the first, it can be said that it is not a good one. A dry cough irritates the throat more and more, and the irritant remains unmovable. That is why it is significant to provoke a wet cough. Its also called productive because it stimulates expectoration. A cough can be related to flu or allergies. Also, this symptom is usually accompanied with the nasal congestion. The ill can treat it without visiting doctor unless the well-being deteriorates.
Possible Causes: flue, allergy, angina.
Possible Treatment: inhalers, expectorants, antiallergenic tablets.
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Diarrhea is a symptom which includes liquid stools several times a day. The main reason for this problem refers to gastrointestinal distress. It is caused by stomach infection or even bacteria which exist on flesh or food which has not undergone thermal processing. Another cause refers to eating lots of different ingredients one after another. When food gets into a stomach, this organ decides which enzymes to use. However, if there are lots of different food, the stomach is confused and combines everything. Diarrhea may happen to everyone sometimes, but if it becomes too often or does not stop for several days, it is a sign to go to a doctor. There may be infections which should be treated with more serious medicine.
Possible Causes: bad quality of food, infection, bacteria.
Possible Treatment: drinking lots of water, antidiarrheal medicines.
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The symptom of ear pain is usually related to catching a cold. Each body has its specific reaction to flu, and this symptom is one of them. The pain can be similar to ringing or nagging feeling. If a person hasn’t any other symptoms related to flu, it means that the reason for the ear pain is an infection. It is important to ask the doctor for prescribing the necessary treatment. Sometimes there is no need for taking antibiotics. If it is a part of the cold, a person needs bed rest and warmth for the ill ear.
Possible Causes: ear infections, flu, cold.
Possible Treatment: NSAIDs, prescribed antibiotics.
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During the day a person sweats because the body tries to control the body temperature and keep it balanced. However, if the person is not involved in the active sport, it is not normal to sweat all the time. One of the most obvious reasons for excessive sweating refers to bad work of hormones because they control the regulation of bodily moisture. This symptom can be triggered by a stressful lifestyle. Also, it is more or less normal for teenagers when they are in the period of maturing.
Possible Causes: stress, nervousness, active sport.
Possible Treatment: antidepressants, medicine prescribed by a doctor.
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When a person feels bad, and the whole body becomes uncontrollable, he or she may faint. The symptom includes a headache, dizziness, low body pressure. Sometimes one may lose conscience because of sudden unexpected news, stress, overworking, exhaustion. Another variant is the lack of fresh air because the brain needs constant delivery of oxygen. Faintness is not life-threatening if there are understandable reasons for it. If a person loses consciousness very often, it is a good reason to visit a doctor for further investigation.
Possible Causes: tiredness, low blood pressure, lack of air.
Possible Treatment: rest, taking pills to raise the blood pressure, drinking water.
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Fatigue is a general term for physical tiredness and exhaustion. This symptom is characterized by the lack of energy, emotional apathy, dizziness, drowsiness. This is a normal state if a person has been working a lot without relaxation. Another factor is lack of sleeping hours or bad quality of sleep. In the beginning, this syndrome is not life-threatening if noticed and treated on time. If a person continues to stay in constant fatigue, other more significant syndromes may appear: sleep apnea, mental disorders, depression, autoimmune illnesses.
Possible Causes: overworking, lack of sleep, stress.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, good quality sleep, vacations.
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If a person feels freezing and shivering, the temperature may show higher than 98.6 degrees F. This symptom indicates fever which can be caused by flu or cold. Other characteristics of fever include a headache, fatigue, irritation. These syndromes indicate the increases body temperature. It is significant to identify whether the temperature remains the same or gets higher every half an hour. If it does not stop to get higher, it is a sign of emergency to call the doctor. The medical worker will give the patient injections to lower the temperature quickly. The risk of very high body temperature is related to burning lungs and other organs. It is especially significant to control for kids because their organs are vulnerable.
Possible Causes: flu.
Possible Treatment: feverish medicine, bed rest, warming-up the body.
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If you feel sleepy and tired, have aching body, a sore throat, and a fever, it can be related to the ordinary flu. It is caused by catching a virus or when you felt cold. The main difference of the flu from other serious illnesses is a temperature which is not higher than 100.4°F. If you have an average 98.6°F, all you need to do is drink warm tea. Do not ever take antibiotics unless the temperature gets higher. There is a proverb saying that if you treat the flu it will end in a week; if you do not treat it, it will end in 7 days. Bear in mind that no virus infection is treated by antibiotics! All you need is to stay in bed and give some warmth to your body.
Possible Causes: virus, cold.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, no antibiotics for virus infections!
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The human’s body has to emit gas throughout the whole day. It is a normal process of each organism. Some food such as beans, dairy products, vegetables, soda, and others provoke the body to let out more gases. It is considered a norm unless it stops after several hours. However, if it gets too often or even painful, there is a reason to think about some illnesses. This symptom can be a signal of indigestion, Crohn’s disease or other diseases. If gas becomes a problem, go to a doctor and get some investigation. There are lots of medicaments which may help with this issue, but they have to be prescribed individually.
Possible Causes: eating food that provokes gas emission, indigestion.
Possible Treatment: diet, antacids.
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Lots of doctors say that people do not have to bear a headache and wait until it disappears. Take aspiring to reveal the pain if it is not chronic. However, it is more efficient to identify the reason for this uncomfortable feeling. It can be caused by stress, depression, fatigue, flu, overworking, exhaustion, sleep deprivation. If your body need some bed rest, take sick leave and stay at home. Medications will give you only instant relief, but without eradicating the reason, there will not be any improvement.
Possible Causes: stress, fatigue, flu, bad sleep quality, exhaustion.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, aspirin.
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Most women have at least once encountered the problem of irregular periods. This symptom is characterized by too quick or too prolonged beginning of menstruation. An average period cycle has 28 days. If the fluctuations are between 3-5 days, it may not be considered irregularity. However, in other situations, it is not a norm if menstruation is not regular. It is not only inconvenient but can be a sign of an illness. The reason for this symptom can be related to stress, extreme weather change, hormonal problems, and others.
Possible Causes: hormone fluctuation.
Possible Treatment: individual doctor’s prescription, not stressful life.
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Joint pain is a symptom which is characterized by nagging or sometimes sharp feeling of discomfort in bones. The most obvious reason is related to the aging process in the body which is natural. However, there are lots of medications which can help with this problem. Most of them include ointment which helps the joint to have natural synovial liquid. It can be caused by intensive sports training such as professional running, dancing. An injury is another possible problem because joints are the most vulnerable. If necessary, the person will have to take the X-ray investigation.
Possible Causes: poor posture, active sport, injury.
Possible Treatment: massage, ointment.
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If somebody has leg pain, it is significant to identify the type of the feeling. If it has happened after an injury, it is important to check if there are any fractures or cracks. For a person who has a leg pain chronically, it can be related to the feeling of discomfort in joints, tissues, muscles, bones, and even nerves. If somebody has been going in for sport, it is a normal feeling. However, if the discomfort does not disappear in several days, it is a hint to go to the doctor. Sometimes people do not know when the injury happened if it is not serious. But even a small fall or inaccurate kick can result in a hidden crack in leg bone.
Possible Causes: injury, osteoarthritis.
Possible Treatment: Aspirin, bed rest, bandage.
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Nicks, ulcers, wounds which appear in the mouth are usually related to stomatitis. It is caused by a virus which should be treated. The symptom is painful because eating food is not comfortable, and the person has discomfort in swallowing food. If the stomatitis is not big, you can rinse mouth with chamomile. If the problem does not disappear, it is important to go to the doctor and get prescribed medicine. Another cause refers to herpes if there are some fever blisters on the lip. Usually, this symptom appears because of bad hygiene, using somebody’s cup, fork. The virus can be transmitted via kisses, touches. There are lots of medications against herpes. The ointments can be bought in any drug store.
Possible Causes: herpes, stomatitis, virus infection.
Possible Treatment: mouth care, chamomile.
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Nausea is a feeling which signifies that a person can vomit at any time. It can be related to various illnesses which are mostly related to digestive system. Food poisoning, flu, virus are the possible causes for this feeling. Sometimes even stress can provoke nausea. That is why it is significant to listen to the body and identify other symptoms which can be related to nausea. This will help determine the exact problem. Hunger can also lead to nausea but try to eat diet food which will not deteriorate the situation.
Possible Causes: virus, food poisoning, pregnancy.
Possible Treatment: rest, eating diet food, self-care.
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Neck pain is a feeling of discomfort in the higher part of the skeleton. The most obvious problem is related to a permanent sitting position, lack of sport and massage, injury. If a person feels discomfort in the neck, it is a sign to get some medical massage. Sometimes the body wants some relaxing. Furthermore, the massaging therapy is a good option even if there is no neck pain. It will save the bones and prevent osteoarthritis. There are lots of therapies which are connected to individual sport exercises. Doing this medical sport, a patient will have a decreased pain.
Possible Causes: osteoarthritis, bad posture, sitting position.
Possible Treatment: massage, NSAIDs.
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The symptom of rash identifies the change of the skin into red, irritated, and swollen. It can signify the allergy. If there are other symptoms such as high temperature, the rash can be caused by a virus. The rash can be focused on one part of the body or the whole skin. It is important not to scratch the skin because the situation may get worse. One of the most common medical causes of rash is related to chickenpox. A person can have this illness once in life. By identifying the type of rash, it will be easier to understand the reason.
Possible Causes: allergy, chickenpox, virus.
Possible Treatment: prescribed medicine, antibiotics.
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If there is some blood in stool and it is not a unique situation, a person has to visit a doctor. Sometimes the blood can be even more serious if it turns into real bleeding. It may signify the internal bleeding which can be life-threatening. The emergency call is obligatory.
Another reason for rectal bleeding signifies about ulcers, diarrhea, anal fissures. A person should not treat this illness by doing self-care. Sometimes serious diseases may hide in such symptoms. The color of blood can also be a good signal of the problem.
Possible Causes: diarrhea, internal bleeding, ulcers.
Possible Treatment: emergency call.
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Skin lump is often called bump. This is the raised part of the skin which can be painful and itchy. The statistics say that this problem may appear because of age. However, it does not mean that old people do not have to pay attention to skin lump, especially if it is painful, big, and creates discomfort. It is important to monitor the bump. It can turn from benign to cancerous. Sometimes they do not require any treatment but a constant, rigorous observation. A doctor will identify the origin of the skin lump with the help of modern medical devices.
Possible Causes: moles, warts, benign tumor.
Possible Treatment: medical investigation, prescribed medicine.
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When a person feels itchy pain when swallowing, the symptom refers to a sore throat. Usually, it signifies the beginning of flu. If a person does not stay in bed, wear warm clothes, scarf, a sore throat may result in having a frog in the throat. It will be difficult not only to swallow but talk. A cough, headache, nausea, runny nose are the indispensable symptoms of a sore throat. An ill man can buy some medical lollipops for decreasing painful swallowing. It is vital to take sick leave, have some warm tea which is not hot, and keep the body in warmth.
Possible Causes: flu, allergy, catching a cold.
Possible Treatment: cold medicine, bed rest, warmth for the neck and the whole body.
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The painful or uncomfortable feeling of itching in the vagina can be caused by infection. Inflamed tissues are the most vulnerable to any infections. It can be either transmitted sexually or because of bad hygiene. Depending on the exact type of itching and its focus, the doctor will provide individual treatment. There are other factors which can provoke vaginal itching but are not that dangerous. Sometimes this symptom refers to menopause or the preparation of the body for menstruation. If the woman notices unusual discharge from the vagina and with the combination of specific itching, it is recommended to get a regular check at the gynecologist.
Possible Causes: infection, virus, illnesses transmitted sexually.
Possible Treatment: prescribed medication.
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Nausea can often result in vomiting for some reasons. Firstly, this symptom can be caused by food poisoning. To avoid intoxication, it is even beneficial to vomit if the person is sure that the food was bad. Secondly, alcohol and drugs can lead to vomiting if the person has consumed too much of these ingredients. Thirdly, vomiting can be connected with infections, virus, and even bacteria. Each body has a different reaction. That is why it is essential to understand other symptoms which will help you identify the disease.
Possible Causes: food poisoning, alcohol intoxication, stress.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, hydration, self-care.
Hillendale Health describes a communicable disease as one that is passed from human to human through direct or indirect contact. Common ones include chicken pox, ringworm, influenza, scabies, lice, pinkeye and hepatitis. Prevention includes good hygiene skills, safe sex and using reputable sources for tattoos, piercing and blood transfusions. There are several things that cause a communicable disease and knowing the risk can help a person take measures to protect themselves and those they come into contact with. Bodily Fluid Exchange.
According to the Oregon Department of Health, communicable diseases can be spread through unprotected sex, sharing needles for drug use, blood transfusions, tattoos or piercings and bites from a child. Pregnant women can pass a disease to their children as well. Prevention of spreading communicable diseases through bodily fluids is achieved through hand washing, safe sex and using clean needles for drug use and tattoos and piercings. The most common communicable diseases spread through bodily fluids are HIV and Hepatitis B, C and D. Direct/Indirect Contact.
Read this article – Lifestyle Diseases
Contact with people suffering from a communicable disease, either directly or indirectly can cause the spread of that disease. Direct contact includes skin to skin, which can spread ringworm and scabies. Indirect contact refers to germs being spread through coughing, sneezing or spitting onto a person who then transfers the germs to their mouth, nose or eyes. The Oregon Department of Health says that good prevention practices include frequent hand washing, keeping hands off the face, and isolating a person who has a communicable disease.
The most common diseases that are spread through contact are the common cold, influenza and whooping cough. Airborne Germs Airborne germs are spread by being suspended in the air by the sick individual through a cough or sneeze and then inhaled by another person. The most common communicable diseases that are transmitted through airborne germs are tuberculosis, measles and chicken pox. Prevention methods include vaccinations and isolating a person who is ill to prevent them from spreading the disease to another person.
TREATMENT OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
Communicable diseases are spread from person to person via pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi. They can be common, short-lived disease like throat colds or chronic diseases like malaria and herpes. The form of treatment necessary for communicable disease depends on both the source and symptoms of the disease. However, treatment usually involves some form of rest, recuperation, medication or vaccine. Common There are numerous common communicable diseases, such as throat colds and the flu. They often produce symptoms like sore throat, runny nose, coughing, sneezing, headache, fever and nausea.
These can typically be treated with adequate rest and over-the-counter medication. Medication for common communicable diseases may include pain relievers like Tylenol as well as nasal decongestants, cough syrups, anti-nausea pills and throat drops. Common communicable diseases usually dissipate over the course of a few days or weeks. Chronic Chronic communicable diseases are severe and not usually spread from person to person via airborne pathogens. They may be spread via parasites, sexual contact or transmission of bodily fluids like blood.
Unlike throat colds or other common illnesses, chronic communicable diseases may last months or even a lifetime. Examples of chronic communicable disease include malaria, Lyme disease, diphtheria and hepatitis. Treatment for chronic communicable diseases usually involves some form of hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, prescription medication and intensive care. Vaccines One effective way to treat a communicable disease is by receiving a vaccine before your body becomes infected. Vaccines work by infecting your body with a weakened strain of the actual disease. Your body then produces antibodies to fight the disease.
Antibodies remain in the system after the weakened strain is gone and protect the body from later infections. Certain vaccines need only to be administered once, such as vaccines for mumps, measles, whooping cough and polio. Others, like the flu vaccine, should be taken annually. PRECAUTIONS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Communicable disease is caused by pathogenic organism which can be easily transmitted from one person to another person, either directly or indirectly. There are different kinds of communicable disease, so the precaution is also different but their are some common precaution which are useful for every communicable disease.
To be healthy and avoid every kind of disease, washing hands is the most important thing. Wash your hand with soap and water before and after doing activities and touching things which seems contaminated. And if you forgot to wash your hands or couldn’t find any resources of hand washing for eg; if you are walking in the street and have to do something but you couldn’t wash your hand than don’t touch your eyes, nose, mouth and ear with the hand. Those areas can be easily infectious with germs.
Try to avoid or limit eating outside. As everybody don’t have time to make food and eat at home daily so if you are eating outside than eat food which are fresh and contains all the nutrients in sufficient amount and less amount of fat or cholesterol.
Try to avoid or limit crowd. Airway disease can be easily transmitted from crowd. If someone is ill in the family than strictly avoid using items used by the family member like towel, linens, cloths, utensils, etc.
Make sure your child had taken all the immunization and if you felt he/she is ill than immediately contact physician. Remember don’t take chance by keeping your child for home observation.
CAUSES OF NON – COMUNICABLE DISESASE
Risk factors such as a person’s background; lifestyle and environment are known to increase the likelihood of certain non-communicable diseases. They include age, sex, genetics, exposure to air pollution, and behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity which can lead to hypertension and obesity, in turn leading to increased risk of many NCDs.  Most NCDs are considered preventable because they are caused by modifiable risk factors.
The WHO’s World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. These are raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and overweight.  Other factors associated with higher risk of NCDs include a person’s economic and social conditions, also known as the “social determinants of health. ” It has been estimated that if the primary risk factors were eliminated, 80% of the cases of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancers could be prevented.
Interventions targeting the main risk factors could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of disease worldwide. Efforts focused on better diet and increased physical activity have been shown to control the prevalence of NCDs. 
TREATMENT OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
More and more people are turning to exercise as a means of achieving long-term health. The World Health Organization has endorsed this concept. The best available evidence suggests that an employee fitness programme will result in decreased health-care costs, decreased absenteeism and increased productivity for the employer. Regular physical activity is also associated with lower mortality rates.
Appropriate physical activity may be a valuable tool in therapeutic regimens for the control and amelioration (rehabilitation) of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, congenital heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, end-stage renal disease, stress, anxiety and depression, etc.
Regular physical activity, independent of other factors, reduces the probability of coronary artery disease and early death. Patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease need more intensive preexercise evaluation than those not a risk, and those with known or suspected cardiovascular disease need the most intensive evaluation and follow-up. Participation in vigorous sports activities, such as jogging, swimming, tennis, etc. , helps to protect against the development of hypertension, even when other predisposing factors are present.
Several studies have been conducted on the use of exercise in the treatment of hypertension. Physical exercise also contributes to the control of body weight. Consideration of the metabolic abnormalities in patients with type II (adult onset) diabetes indicates that they would make excellent candidates for an exercise programme. Osteoporosis is an important health problem for the elderly. The best treatment available at present is prevention, and a high level of physical activity throughout life can result in a larger skeletal mass during old age.
PRECAUTIONS OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
Non communicable diseases do not occurred by an infection. Typically they are developed due to heredity, surroundings and behavior of an individual. Many of these diseases can be prevented to some extent. Individuals can prevent these diseases by having proper diet and exercise routines. They cannot be transferred from one human to another. Factors that can cause these diseases include abnormalities in genes, heredity problem, lifestyle and environment. Instructions Step 1 : Know the history of your family’s health. Many non communicable diseases are caused due to heredity.
While development of these diseases is not guaranteed by your family’s health history, it will just tell you to focus on what sort of the diseases. For example, if members of four immediate families suffer from cancer, you must take precaution to prevent this non communicable disease. If you are not aware with the history of your family’s health, ask your parents, your siblings or ask your other close family and know what type of non communicable diseases you are prone to. Step 2 You must take medical screenings regularly for non communicable diseases.
One must go for overall health screening once in a year as recommended by experts. For example, as recommended by the American College of the Physicians, all women when they attain an age of 50years must receive a yearly mammogram. However, women with high risk of breast cancer due to their family health history must receive mammograms at an age of 40. D. A Berry, conducted cancer study in 2005 stated that between 29 and 64 percent of a sharp drop in women breast cancer deaths in between 1991 and 2001 were not indirectly related to mammograms and the screenings received once a year.
Non communicable diseases can also be prevented by many other medical screenings. Heart screenings, cholesterol, a high blood pressure and many other medical screenings helped in saving the lives and it is an important way to avoid deaths that occur because of non-communicable diseases by the help of early detection. Step 3 Find any non communicable diseases which you feel you’re most at most risk for. It is most important to learn to prevent specific non communicable diseases which have made you at high risk which can be due to your lifestyle, your surroundings etc.
By having information, you can know many ways to prevent certain non communicable diseases. Non communicable diseases which include heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer are research in one place named as Harvard Medicine. It allows anyone to find conditions, causes, preventions tat can work for an individual and its website is –hms. harvard. edu/hms/research. asp. Step 4 Changes in diet can prove beneficial for your health and it may also help to prevent non communicable diseases. Massive differences can also be made even by small changes.
For example, increasing in intake of daily fruits and vegetables can significantly reduce higher risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke and other medical conditions. Step 5 You must avoid things which raise risk factors for certain non communicable diseases. If you smoke cigarettes every day you are at higher risk for cancer. Cancer. Having alcohol in excess can also higher your risk of these diseases. In order to prevent non communicable diseases you must take out elements from your life which increases the risk of non communicable diseases.