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A famous proverb “One apple a day keeps a doctor away” is not that topical in our everyday world. Sometimes vitamins cannot help unless a person understands the origin of some body symptoms. Moreover, the Internet is so overwhelmed with the information about health, that the necessary data gets lost. That is why we have decided to create a useful page with all the symptoms with a short description to each.
By reading this information, you may easily identify which health problem is related to the symptoms. Our body gives us lots of signs which we need to read and understand. Unless you know this information, the illness may deteriorate in due course. It means that people have to pay attention to what their body feels. Whether it is a pain, discomfort, weird tingling, you have to determine the cause of it. By understanding a true reason, it will be much easier to eradicate the disease from its core.
Before going to the doctor, try to identify which possible reason for symptoms you may have. Find your problem on this page below, select it, and read a short description. There you may find an explanation of the symptom and its relation to other more serious illnesses. Analyze possible causes which are mentioned and underline those which are more likely to be related to your health problem. By identifying this information, it will be easier to select the doctor’s specialization for further investigation.
The abdominal pain can be acute, nagging, dull, even excruciating. It is quite difficult to identify the reason if you know that no bad food, poor diet, strong stresses have caused it. First of all, identify the location of the pain. Then, determine which organs are placed there. The most frequent reason is related to eating bad, spoiled food, or ingredients which do not match for proper digestion. If you do not remember eating something harmful for the last 24 hours, it can be a more serious situation. Also, you can check whether the pain is not coming from the appendix. If it is inflamed, the pain comes from the lower right part of you stomach (close to the right hip). Appendicitis should be treated with the help of surgery. Do not drink any medications before the doctor arrives.
Possible Causes: spoilt food, indigestion, gastritis.
Possible Treatment: Antacids, Antibiotics.
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The most common reason for having an arm pain refers to strained muscles somewhere in the elbow or shoulder. If you have been going in for sport, you might even haven’t noticed when you strained the muscles. Sometimes it happens because of the adrenaline. But when you get home, the muscles remind you of training too much.
Wrist pain can be even related to using the computer mouse or the keyboard. There are even an illnesses called Wrist Canal Syndrome. You need to trace back your day to understand the reason for the arm pain. It can be caused even by everyday activity such as typing, talking on the phone, lifting something heavy. If the pain does not stop but gets worse, it is efficient to take the X-ray investigation of the injured part.
Possible Causes: injury, Tunnel Syndrome, crick.
Possible Treatment: resting the injured part, ice, compression, NSAIDS.
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Back pain is a pervasive problem. It is important not to ignore it to prevent serious illnesses which may make the everyday life focused on the back pain solely. The pain can be located along the spine beginning from the neck. Sitting position, lack of sport, incorrect posture of sitting, stress are the most common reasons for this. The spine is a very strong part of the body because it holds its weight. While sleeping, it renovates the length of the spine because during the daytime it descends under the weight of the body. Another possible reason is related to lifting something heavy. If you cannot lean to your toes, you may have ruptured disks. To treat this, you will need to go to the doctor. Such a nagging pain results from the inflamed spine nerves around the ruptured disks.
Possible Causes: Osteoarthritis, injuries, arthritis.
Possible Treatment: NSAIDs, massages.
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The symptom of body aches can be related to various reasons. It is characterized by the feeling of discomfort in bones, muscles, and overall exhaustion. To understand the cause of this state, consider what you have been doing during the say. Body aches can be caused by stress or going in for sport. Sometimes you need to have a rest and give your body some relaxation. If there is no reasonable situation which can explain your state, take the temperature. If it is higher than normal. Go to a doctor to continue the medical investigation.
Possible Causes: stress, exhaustion, flu.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, aspirin.
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The pain in breast is located in the upper part of the corps. Breast discomfort usually belongs to hormonal reasons. For women, it is a normal situation to feel it because of the upcoming menstruation. Lots of hormones function in the breast tissues causing various feelings. If the pain is not strong, it will disappear soon. However, if it causes lots of discomfort and gets worse, you need to go to the doctor. Sometimes even small tumors can cause such feelings. It is even recommended to visit the gynecologist regularly to make sure that there are no problems with breasts.
Possible Causes: impact of hormones, tumor
Possible Treatment: NSAIDS, prescribed treatment.
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If a person has difficulties with breathing suddenly, it is significant to free clothes of this man. An unpredictable cough can be caused by stranglehold. If a man is eating something and suddenly has a problem with breathing, some food can be stuck in the respiratory truck. If the man chokes, another man has to help him get this thing out. Another reason for breathing difficulty refers to an allergic reaction, flu, asthma. If an individual has such problems from time to time, it is significant to identify the specific illnesses. According to it, the doctor will prescribe the necessary treatment.
Possible Causes: flu, choking, asthma, allergy.
Possible Treatment: fresh air, inhalers, prescribed antibiotics.
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The heart also belongs to this part. Sometimes people cannot identify whether the pain comes from muscles or the organs. It feels somewhere in the center, and you cannot take a deep breath. It can be related to the heart muscles. Usually, this feeling appears because of doing abrupt movements or sitting in an uncomfortable position. If the pain does not disappear in several minutes and your overall well-being gets worse, call the doctor.
If the feeling reminds of burning, the chest pain can be caused by angina. Take temperature to understand whether it is true.
Possible Causes: muscle contraction, angina.
Possible Treatment: relaxing, aspirin, prescribed antibiotics.
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The most common type of congestion is a nasal one. It is a normal reaction of the body on getting cold. Excess mucus and secretions are kept in the air passages and block normal breathing via nostrils. It can be treated at home by drinking warm tea, water, and taking nose drops which will not treat but alleviate the symptoms. If the congestion gets more chronic than occasional, it is a signal of possible complications. Sometimes it can even lead to sinusitis or other serious illnesses. The doctor will help with all the symptoms if the patient comes on time.
Possible Causes: flu, sinusitis.
Possible Treatment: nasal spray.
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A cough is a natural method of clearing the throat if something irritates it. There are two types of cough: dry and wet. Analyzing the first, it can be said that it is not a good one. A dry cough irritates the throat more and more, and the irritant remains unmovable. That is why it is significant to provoke a wet cough. Its also called productive because it stimulates expectoration. A cough can be related to flu or allergies. Also, this symptom is usually accompanied with the nasal congestion. The ill can treat it without visiting doctor unless the well-being deteriorates.
Possible Causes: flue, allergy, angina.
Possible Treatment: inhalers, expectorants, antiallergenic tablets.
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Diarrhea is a symptom which includes liquid stools several times a day. The main reason for this problem refers to gastrointestinal distress. It is caused by stomach infection or even bacteria which exist on flesh or food which has not undergone thermal processing. Another cause refers to eating lots of different ingredients one after another. When food gets into a stomach, this organ decides which enzymes to use. However, if there are lots of different food, the stomach is confused and combines everything. Diarrhea may happen to everyone sometimes, but if it becomes too often or does not stop for several days, it is a sign to go to a doctor. There may be infections which should be treated with more serious medicine.
Possible Causes: bad quality of food, infection, bacteria.
Possible Treatment: drinking lots of water, antidiarrheal medicines.
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The symptom of ear pain is usually related to catching a cold. Each body has its specific reaction to flu, and this symptom is one of them. The pain can be similar to ringing or nagging feeling. If a person hasn’t any other symptoms related to flu, it means that the reason for the ear pain is an infection. It is important to ask the doctor for prescribing the necessary treatment. Sometimes there is no need for taking antibiotics. If it is a part of the cold, a person needs bed rest and warmth for the ill ear.
Possible Causes: ear infections, flu, cold.
Possible Treatment: NSAIDs, prescribed antibiotics.
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During the day a person sweats because the body tries to control the body temperature and keep it balanced. However, if the person is not involved in the active sport, it is not normal to sweat all the time. One of the most obvious reasons for excessive sweating refers to bad work of hormones because they control the regulation of bodily moisture. This symptom can be triggered by a stressful lifestyle. Also, it is more or less normal for teenagers when they are in the period of maturing.
Possible Causes: stress, nervousness, active sport.
Possible Treatment: antidepressants, medicine prescribed by a doctor.
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When a person feels bad, and the whole body becomes uncontrollable, he or she may faint. The symptom includes a headache, dizziness, low body pressure. Sometimes one may lose conscience because of sudden unexpected news, stress, overworking, exhaustion. Another variant is the lack of fresh air because the brain needs constant delivery of oxygen. Faintness is not life-threatening if there are understandable reasons for it. If a person loses consciousness very often, it is a good reason to visit a doctor for further investigation.
Possible Causes: tiredness, low blood pressure, lack of air.
Possible Treatment: rest, taking pills to raise the blood pressure, drinking water.
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Fatigue is a general term for physical tiredness and exhaustion. This symptom is characterized by the lack of energy, emotional apathy, dizziness, drowsiness. This is a normal state if a person has been working a lot without relaxation. Another factor is lack of sleeping hours or bad quality of sleep. In the beginning, this syndrome is not life-threatening if noticed and treated on time. If a person continues to stay in constant fatigue, other more significant syndromes may appear: sleep apnea, mental disorders, depression, autoimmune illnesses.
Possible Causes: overworking, lack of sleep, stress.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, good quality sleep, vacations.
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If a person feels freezing and shivering, the temperature may show higher than 98.6 degrees F. This symptom indicates fever which can be caused by flu or cold. Other characteristics of fever include a headache, fatigue, irritation. These syndromes indicate the increases body temperature. It is significant to identify whether the temperature remains the same or gets higher every half an hour. If it does not stop to get higher, it is a sign of emergency to call the doctor. The medical worker will give the patient injections to lower the temperature quickly. The risk of very high body temperature is related to burning lungs and other organs. It is especially significant to control for kids because their organs are vulnerable.
Possible Causes: flu.
Possible Treatment: feverish medicine, bed rest, warming-up the body.
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If you feel sleepy and tired, have aching body, a sore throat, and a fever, it can be related to the ordinary flu. It is caused by catching a virus or when you felt cold. The main difference of the flu from other serious illnesses is a temperature which is not higher than 100.4°F. If you have an average 98.6°F, all you need to do is drink warm tea. Do not ever take antibiotics unless the temperature gets higher. There is a proverb saying that if you treat the flu it will end in a week; if you do not treat it, it will end in 7 days. Bear in mind that no virus infection is treated by antibiotics! All you need is to stay in bed and give some warmth to your body.
Possible Causes: virus, cold.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, no antibiotics for virus infections!
Read More About Flu Checkup
The human’s body has to emit gas throughout the whole day. It is a normal process of each organism. Some food such as beans, dairy products, vegetables, soda, and others provoke the body to let out more gases. It is considered a norm unless it stops after several hours. However, if it gets too often or even painful, there is a reason to think about some illnesses. This symptom can be a signal of indigestion, Crohn’s disease or other diseases. If gas becomes a problem, go to a doctor and get some investigation. There are lots of medicaments which may help with this issue, but they have to be prescribed individually.
Possible Causes: eating food that provokes gas emission, indigestion.
Possible Treatment: diet, antacids.
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Lots of doctors say that people do not have to bear a headache and wait until it disappears. Take aspiring to reveal the pain if it is not chronic. However, it is more efficient to identify the reason for this uncomfortable feeling. It can be caused by stress, depression, fatigue, flu, overworking, exhaustion, sleep deprivation. If your body need some bed rest, take sick leave and stay at home. Medications will give you only instant relief, but without eradicating the reason, there will not be any improvement.
Possible Causes: stress, fatigue, flu, bad sleep quality, exhaustion.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, aspirin.
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Most women have at least once encountered the problem of irregular periods. This symptom is characterized by too quick or too prolonged beginning of menstruation. An average period cycle has 28 days. If the fluctuations are between 3-5 days, it may not be considered irregularity. However, in other situations, it is not a norm if menstruation is not regular. It is not only inconvenient but can be a sign of an illness. The reason for this symptom can be related to stress, extreme weather change, hormonal problems, and others.
Possible Causes: hormone fluctuation.
Possible Treatment: individual doctor’s prescription, not stressful life.
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Joint pain is a symptom which is characterized by nagging or sometimes sharp feeling of discomfort in bones. The most obvious reason is related to the aging process in the body which is natural. However, there are lots of medications which can help with this problem. Most of them include ointment which helps the joint to have natural synovial liquid. It can be caused by intensive sports training such as professional running, dancing. An injury is another possible problem because joints are the most vulnerable. If necessary, the person will have to take the X-ray investigation.
Possible Causes: poor posture, active sport, injury.
Possible Treatment: massage, ointment.
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If somebody has leg pain, it is significant to identify the type of the feeling. If it has happened after an injury, it is important to check if there are any fractures or cracks. For a person who has a leg pain chronically, it can be related to the feeling of discomfort in joints, tissues, muscles, bones, and even nerves. If somebody has been going in for sport, it is a normal feeling. However, if the discomfort does not disappear in several days, it is a hint to go to the doctor. Sometimes people do not know when the injury happened if it is not serious. But even a small fall or inaccurate kick can result in a hidden crack in leg bone.
Possible Causes: injury, osteoarthritis.
Possible Treatment: Aspirin, bed rest, bandage.
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Nicks, ulcers, wounds which appear in the mouth are usually related to stomatitis. It is caused by a virus which should be treated. The symptom is painful because eating food is not comfortable, and the person has discomfort in swallowing food. If the stomatitis is not big, you can rinse mouth with chamomile. If the problem does not disappear, it is important to go to the doctor and get prescribed medicine. Another cause refers to herpes if there are some fever blisters on the lip. Usually, this symptom appears because of bad hygiene, using somebody’s cup, fork. The virus can be transmitted via kisses, touches. There are lots of medications against herpes. The ointments can be bought in any drug store.
Possible Causes: herpes, stomatitis, virus infection.
Possible Treatment: mouth care, chamomile.
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Nausea is a feeling which signifies that a person can vomit at any time. It can be related to various illnesses which are mostly related to digestive system. Food poisoning, flu, virus are the possible causes for this feeling. Sometimes even stress can provoke nausea. That is why it is significant to listen to the body and identify other symptoms which can be related to nausea. This will help determine the exact problem. Hunger can also lead to nausea but try to eat diet food which will not deteriorate the situation.
Possible Causes: virus, food poisoning, pregnancy.
Possible Treatment: rest, eating diet food, self-care.
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Neck pain is a feeling of discomfort in the higher part of the skeleton. The most obvious problem is related to a permanent sitting position, lack of sport and massage, injury. If a person feels discomfort in the neck, it is a sign to get some medical massage. Sometimes the body wants some relaxing. Furthermore, the massaging therapy is a good option even if there is no neck pain. It will save the bones and prevent osteoarthritis. There are lots of therapies which are connected to individual sport exercises. Doing this medical sport, a patient will have a decreased pain.
Possible Causes: osteoarthritis, bad posture, sitting position.
Possible Treatment: massage, NSAIDs.
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The symptom of rash identifies the change of the skin into red, irritated, and swollen. It can signify the allergy. If there are other symptoms such as high temperature, the rash can be caused by a virus. The rash can be focused on one part of the body or the whole skin. It is important not to scratch the skin because the situation may get worse. One of the most common medical causes of rash is related to chickenpox. A person can have this illness once in life. By identifying the type of rash, it will be easier to understand the reason.
Possible Causes: allergy, chickenpox, virus.
Possible Treatment: prescribed medicine, antibiotics.
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If there is some blood in stool and it is not a unique situation, a person has to visit a doctor. Sometimes the blood can be even more serious if it turns into real bleeding. It may signify the internal bleeding which can be life-threatening. The emergency call is obligatory.
Another reason for rectal bleeding signifies about ulcers, diarrhea, anal fissures. A person should not treat this illness by doing self-care. Sometimes serious diseases may hide in such symptoms. The color of blood can also be a good signal of the problem.
Possible Causes: diarrhea, internal bleeding, ulcers.
Possible Treatment: emergency call.
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Skin lump is often called bump. This is the raised part of the skin which can be painful and itchy. The statistics say that this problem may appear because of age. However, it does not mean that old people do not have to pay attention to skin lump, especially if it is painful, big, and creates discomfort. It is important to monitor the bump. It can turn from benign to cancerous. Sometimes they do not require any treatment but a constant, rigorous observation. A doctor will identify the origin of the skin lump with the help of modern medical devices.
Possible Causes: moles, warts, benign tumor.
Possible Treatment: medical investigation, prescribed medicine.
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When a person feels itchy pain when swallowing, the symptom refers to a sore throat. Usually, it signifies the beginning of flu. If a person does not stay in bed, wear warm clothes, scarf, a sore throat may result in having a frog in the throat. It will be difficult not only to swallow but talk. A cough, headache, nausea, runny nose are the indispensable symptoms of a sore throat. An ill man can buy some medical lollipops for decreasing painful swallowing. It is vital to take sick leave, have some warm tea which is not hot, and keep the body in warmth.
Possible Causes: flu, allergy, catching a cold.
Possible Treatment: cold medicine, bed rest, warmth for the neck and the whole body.
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The painful or uncomfortable feeling of itching in the vagina can be caused by infection. Inflamed tissues are the most vulnerable to any infections. It can be either transmitted sexually or because of bad hygiene. Depending on the exact type of itching and its focus, the doctor will provide individual treatment. There are other factors which can provoke vaginal itching but are not that dangerous. Sometimes this symptom refers to menopause or the preparation of the body for menstruation. If the woman notices unusual discharge from the vagina and with the combination of specific itching, it is recommended to get a regular check at the gynecologist.
Possible Causes: infection, virus, illnesses transmitted sexually.
Possible Treatment: prescribed medication.
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Nausea can often result in vomiting for some reasons. Firstly, this symptom can be caused by food poisoning. To avoid intoxication, it is even beneficial to vomit if the person is sure that the food was bad. Secondly, alcohol and drugs can lead to vomiting if the person has consumed too much of these ingredients. Thirdly, vomiting can be connected with infections, virus, and even bacteria. Each body has a different reaction. That is why it is essential to understand other symptoms which will help you identify the disease.
Possible Causes: food poisoning, alcohol intoxication, stress.
Possible Treatment: bed rest, hydration, self-care.
Hillendale Health describes a communicable disease as one that is passed from human to human through direct or indirect contact. Common ones include chicken pox, ringworm, influenza, scabies, lice, pinkeye and hepatitis. Prevention includes good hygiene skills, safe sex and using reputable sources for tattoos, piercing and blood transfusions. There are several things that cause a communicable disease and knowing the risk can help a person take measures to protect themselves and those they come into contact with. Bodily Fluid Exchange.
According to the Oregon Department of Health, communicable diseases can be spread through unprotected sex, sharing needles for drug use, blood transfusions, tattoos or piercings and bites from a child. Pregnant women can pass a disease to their children as well. Prevention of spreading communicable diseases through bodily fluids is achieved through hand washing, safe sex and using clean needles for drug use and tattoos and piercings. The most common communicable diseases spread through bodily fluids are HIV and Hepatitis B, C and D. Direct/Indirect Contact.
Read this article – Lifestyle Diseases
Contact with people suffering from a communicable disease, either directly or indirectly can cause the spread of that disease. Direct contact includes skin to skin, which can spread ringworm and scabies. Indirect contact refers to germs being spread through coughing, sneezing or spitting onto a person who then transfers the germs to their mouth, nose or eyes. The Oregon Department of Health says that good prevention practices include frequent hand washing, keeping hands off the face, and isolating a person who has a communicable disease.
The most common diseases that are spread through contact are the common cold, influenza and whooping cough. Airborne Germs Airborne germs are spread by being suspended in the air by the sick individual through a cough or sneeze and then inhaled by another person. The most common communicable diseases that are transmitted through airborne germs are tuberculosis, measles and chicken pox. Prevention methods include vaccinations and isolating a person who is ill to prevent them from spreading the disease to another person.
TREATMENT OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
Communicable diseases are spread from person to person via pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi. They can be common, short-lived disease like throat colds or chronic diseases like malaria and herpes. The form of treatment necessary for communicable disease depends on both the source and symptoms of the disease. However, treatment usually involves some form of rest, recuperation, medication or vaccine. Common There are numerous common communicable diseases, such as throat colds and the flu. They often produce symptoms like sore throat, runny nose, coughing, sneezing, headache, fever and nausea.
These can typically be treated with adequate rest and over-the-counter medication. Medication for common communicable diseases may include pain relievers like Tylenol as well as nasal decongestants, cough syrups, anti-nausea pills and throat drops. Common communicable diseases usually dissipate over the course of a few days or weeks. Chronic Chronic communicable diseases are severe and not usually spread from person to person via airborne pathogens. They may be spread via parasites, sexual contact or transmission of bodily fluids like blood.
Unlike throat colds or other common illnesses, chronic communicable diseases may last months or even a lifetime. Examples of chronic communicable disease include malaria, Lyme disease, diphtheria and hepatitis. Treatment for chronic communicable diseases usually involves some form of hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, prescription medication and intensive care. Vaccines One effective way to treat a communicable disease is by receiving a vaccine before your body becomes infected. Vaccines work by infecting your body with a weakened strain of the actual disease. Your body then produces antibodies to fight the disease.
Antibodies remain in the system after the weakened strain is gone and protect the body from later infections. Certain vaccines need only to be administered once, such as vaccines for mumps, measles, whooping cough and polio. Others, like the flu vaccine, should be taken annually. PRECAUTIONS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Communicable disease is caused by pathogenic organism which can be easily transmitted from one person to another person, either directly or indirectly. There are different kinds of communicable disease, so the precaution is also different but their are some common precaution which are useful for every communicable disease.
To be healthy and avoid every kind of disease, washing hands is the most important thing. Wash your hand with soap and water before and after doing activities and touching things which seems contaminated. And if you forgot to wash your hands or couldn’t find any resources of hand washing for eg; if you are walking in the street and have to do something but you couldn’t wash your hand than don’t touch your eyes, nose, mouth and ear with the hand. Those areas can be easily infectious with germs.
Try to avoid or limit eating outside. As everybody don’t have time to make food and eat at home daily so if you are eating outside than eat food which are fresh and contains all the nutrients in sufficient amount and less amount of fat or cholesterol.
Try to avoid or limit crowd. Airway disease can be easily transmitted from crowd. If someone is ill in the family than strictly avoid using items used by the family member like towel, linens, cloths, utensils, etc.
Make sure your child had taken all the immunization and if you felt he/she is ill than immediately contact physician. Remember don’t take chance by keeping your child for home observation.
CAUSES OF NON – COMUNICABLE DISESASE
Risk factors such as a person’s background; lifestyle and environment are known to increase the likelihood of certain non-communicable diseases. They include age, sex, genetics, exposure to air pollution, and behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity which can lead to hypertension and obesity, in turn leading to increased risk of many NCDs.  Most NCDs are considered preventable because they are caused by modifiable risk factors.
The WHO’s World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. These are raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and overweight.  Other factors associated with higher risk of NCDs include a person’s economic and social conditions, also known as the “social determinants of health. ” It has been estimated that if the primary risk factors were eliminated, 80% of the cases of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancers could be prevented.
Interventions targeting the main risk factors could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of disease worldwide. Efforts focused on better diet and increased physical activity have been shown to control the prevalence of NCDs. 
TREATMENT OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
More and more people are turning to exercise as a means of achieving long-term health. The World Health Organization has endorsed this concept. The best available evidence suggests that an employee fitness programme will result in decreased health-care costs, decreased absenteeism and increased productivity for the employer. Regular physical activity is also associated with lower mortality rates.
Appropriate physical activity may be a valuable tool in therapeutic regimens for the control and amelioration (rehabilitation) of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, congenital heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, end-stage renal disease, stress, anxiety and depression, etc.
Regular physical activity, independent of other factors, reduces the probability of coronary artery disease and early death. Patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease need more intensive preexercise evaluation than those not a risk, and those with known or suspected cardiovascular disease need the most intensive evaluation and follow-up. Participation in vigorous sports activities, such as jogging, swimming, tennis, etc. , helps to protect against the development of hypertension, even when other predisposing factors are present.
Several studies have been conducted on the use of exercise in the treatment of hypertension. Physical exercise also contributes to the control of body weight. Consideration of the metabolic abnormalities in patients with type II (adult onset) diabetes indicates that they would make excellent candidates for an exercise programme. Osteoporosis is an important health problem for the elderly. The best treatment available at present is prevention, and a high level of physical activity throughout life can result in a larger skeletal mass during old age.
PRECAUTIONS OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
Non communicable diseases do not occurred by an infection. Typically they are developed due to heredity, surroundings and behavior of an individual. Many of these diseases can be prevented to some extent. Individuals can prevent these diseases by having proper diet and exercise routines. They cannot be transferred from one human to another. Factors that can cause these diseases include abnormalities in genes, heredity problem, lifestyle and environment. Instructions Step 1 : Know the history of your family’s health. Many non communicable diseases are caused due to heredity.
While development of these diseases is not guaranteed by your family’s health history, it will just tell you to focus on what sort of the diseases. For example, if members of four immediate families suffer from cancer, you must take precaution to prevent this non communicable disease. If you are not aware with the history of your family’s health, ask your parents, your siblings or ask your other close family and know what type of non communicable diseases you are prone to. Step 2 You must take medical screenings regularly for non communicable diseases.
One must go for overall health screening once in a year as recommended by experts. For example, as recommended by the American College of the Physicians, all women when they attain an age of 50years must receive a yearly mammogram. However, women with high risk of breast cancer due to their family health history must receive mammograms at an age of 40. D. A Berry, conducted cancer study in 2005 stated that between 29 and 64 percent of a sharp drop in women breast cancer deaths in between 1991 and 2001 were not indirectly related to mammograms and the screenings received once a year.
Non communicable diseases can also be prevented by many other medical screenings. Heart screenings, cholesterol, a high blood pressure and many other medical screenings helped in saving the lives and it is an important way to avoid deaths that occur because of non-communicable diseases by the help of early detection. Step 3 Find any non communicable diseases which you feel you’re most at most risk for. It is most important to learn to prevent specific non communicable diseases which have made you at high risk which can be due to your lifestyle, your surroundings etc.
By having information, you can know many ways to prevent certain non communicable diseases. Non communicable diseases which include heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer are research in one place named as Harvard Medicine. It allows anyone to find conditions, causes, preventions tat can work for an individual and its website is –hms. harvard. edu/hms/research. asp. Step 4 Changes in diet can prove beneficial for your health and it may also help to prevent non communicable diseases. Massive differences can also be made even by small changes.
For example, increasing in intake of daily fruits and vegetables can significantly reduce higher risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke and other medical conditions. Step 5 You must avoid things which raise risk factors for certain non communicable diseases. If you smoke cigarettes every day you are at higher risk for cancer. Cancer. Having alcohol in excess can also higher your risk of these diseases. In order to prevent non communicable diseases you must take out elements from your life which increases the risk of non communicable diseases.
In this assignment I am going to describe the current patterns of ill health and how they are monitored, I will also compare historical and current features of public health. Through the past century the health of the public has changed dramatically with such issues as polio, measles, rubella and other infectious diseases have almost been eradicated but now such issues are arising being; obesity, alcohol abuse, smoking, an aging demographical , mental health and dental issues.
All the issues that have been mentioned above have influence a rise in such conditions as coronary heart disease, diabetes type two and cancer. Compare to now and the early 19th and 20th century, a number of infectious diseases was the cause of death with not many individuals living past 50 due to that lack of health care, vaccinations and information that is available now, but in this modern era with many people living into their 90s and older people are still dying in their young years due to non-informed choices, the environment in which they live and their lifestyle.
An escalating problem in the 21st century is the rise of obesity which in turn leads to problems with the individual’s health. It is a worldwide problem with many people making the non-informed choice when it comes to healthy eating and exercise. According to the Department of health the cost to the NHS is estimated to be ? 5. 1 billion a year that is used to rectify and cure such problems that obesity has caused.
Obesity is when an individual is overweight and their weight is greater than what is considered healthy for a person’s height, gender and the individuals BMI (Body mass index), this is due to not balancing energy input to energy output, also not calorie counting the maximum calorie intake a day is 2000 for an average individual. Obesity can cause such non-communicable diseases as coronary heart disease, diabetes type two and preventable cancers. According to the WHO 2012 overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in low and middle income countries and also in built-up areas.
Authorities locally, nationally and worldwide is constantly trying to provide us about making informed choices about such issues as walking instead of taking the bus/ stairs, switching unhealthy snacks for a piece of fruit or vegetables, also getting at least a hour of exercise everyday. According to the department of Health 2011, Obesity is a big factor that cause a lot of health problems and England has one of the highest rates of obesity on Europe with over 60% of adults overweight or obese.
Childhood obesity is increasing with a third of ten and 11 year olds overweight in England also. Obesity in childhood has risen greatly over the past two decades not only in the UK but also worldwide. According to the WHO 2012, childhood obesity is the most serious public health issue of today. Individuals quality of life is affected largely with continuous health problems that is all sourced to have come from been overweight, the WHO suggests that at least 2. 6 million people die each year as a result of being obese or obesity.
With some individuals that are severely obese unable to walk a long distance or have some issues about not leaving the house due to not been confident about their body leading them to eat more. According to the government they are considering bringing in a “fat tax” although this is already brought in, Denmark has taxed products with saturated fats like butter, in France they are planning to implement a tax on fizzy drinks, while Hungary has brought in a extra tax on “high-fat-sugar-salt” products and also Finland is considering placing a tax on sweets.
(The guardian, 2011) If the Government brought this tax in this would help reduce the rates of the soaring numbers of obese people and although the department of health has yet to say if they are taking any action to this, the government have launched a campaign “ Call to Action to obesity”, this is an campaign in which the government is trying to reduce the amount of people that are obese through working with clinical experts and charities to help fight the causes and consequences of been overweight, also the NHS workers, employers food industries, and the physical activity sector all to help fight the soaring rates of obesity by 2020.
Smoking is one of the unhealthiest addictions, that are one of the biggest killers and government across the world have been implementing such legislation as not allowing smoking in buildings or work areas, also through taxation, warnings on the packs of cigarettes and also providing support to people who wants to quit smoking. According to the WHO 2012 tobacco is a leading factor for premature mortality in Europe. Also the WHO suggests that smoking accounts 12-20 years of life lost and up to 21 % of deaths. It also shows that 24% of young people aged 15 years old smoke every week.
In England more than 80,000 premature deaths are caused by smoking (Department of health, 2012). Approximately 21% of adults smoke within England, this is over 8 million still smoke, almost two-thirds of current and ex-smokers say that they started smoking before 18 (Department of health, 2012). Also On the 6 April this year, all large shops in England will need to hide tobacco products from view in a drive to cut the number of smokers and protect young people, who are often the target of tobacco promotion. Sainsbury’s and many more companies have already been trialling hiding tobacco displays.
Other shops have just one month to find out if they are classified as a large shop, to plan how they are going to cover up their tobacco displays. The government and local authorities have launched quit kits to help people quitting and also opening help lines for support. Smokers are faced with many health problems with lung cancer and many other cancers been a big health risk due to what is in the cigarettes. Other health risks are coronary heart disease, heart attacks, stokes, respiratory problems such as chronic bronchitis, pneumonia and can worsen asthma.
Secondhand smoke comes from the tip of a lit cigarette and is the smoke that the smoker breathes out. People who breathe in secondhand smoke are at risk of the same health conditions as smokers, particularly lung cancer and heart disease. Their quality of life is affected with smokers more at risk of cancers and heart diseases, also they would be more prone to getting sick and also having to clear their throat in the morning due to been caught up. The third issue that I am going to discuss is not very open and not many people would like to discuss, mental health is a big issue that has to be addressed.
With one in four adults experiencing mental illness at some point in their lifetime and one in six experiencing symptoms at any one time. Mental health is the largest cause of disability in our society. They have been ? 22million to be inserted in to a pioneering programme to give children with mental health problems access to the best services in a wider range of places spent over the next three years to expand state-of-the-art psychological therapies and extend training for people working with youngsters outside of health settings, such as in schools or youth groups.
One in ten children aged 5-16 years has a clinically diagnosable mental health problem and, of adults with long-term mental health problems, half will have experienced their first symptoms before the age of 14. Self-harming and substance abuse are known to be much more common in children and young people with mental health disorders – with ten per cent of 15-16 year olds having self-harmed.
The facts and figures around Mental Health in the UK are alarming;
Almost 1 in 4 people will experience some kind of mental health problem in the course of a year, Mixed anxiety and depression is the most common mental disorder in Britain.
Also Women are more likely to have been treated for a mental health problem than men.
About 10% of children have a mental health problem at any one time.
Depression affects 1 in 5 older people.
Suicides rates show that British men are three times as likely to die by suicide as British women.
Self-harm statistics for the UK show one of the highest rates in Europe: 400 per 100,000 populations.
Only 1 in 10 prisoners has no mental disorder. (Mental health foundation, 2012).
The government has also injected 400 million to bring mental health up to the same treatment as patients would get if they were physically injured. This was in 2011 with many doctors just handing out tablets for such things as depression or eating disorders; this is helped by offering care services such as childline and other help lines.
All the above issues have affected the life expectancy with such issues as smoking nearly having life expectancy, although compared to the 19th and 20th Century peoples life expectancy was shockingly scary due to such infectious diseases as cholera, polio, diphtheria and other diseases along with poor housing, lack of nutrition, and no health care all affected life expectancy with a lower class individual living to her early twenties with a higher class women living to 45.
Although now with the advances in healthcare, housing and nutrition many people are still dying at a young age, this is due to cancers, coronary heart diseases and terminal illnesses. Today life expectancy is about, the environment you live in, lifestyle, gender, work, diet, poverty and poor housing. Throughout the years the life expectancy have rose although in some places throughout the UK it has not increased steadily with an estate in Glasgow with men living to 50. In 2008 an average males life expectancy reached 76. 4 years and a female’s life expectancy was 81. 3 years in northern Ireland. (Northern Ireland Executive, 2011).
All of the above has been a massive leap from the 19th and 20th century with over 30 years been added, this is due to the well structured health care, better housing and more information about nutrition. Even though many people may not have the standard of live which is expected to be normal, they may be living in poverty which would also affect live expectancy. Also we have seen that mothers and infants life expectancy have increased with more of than 99% for mothers and 90% for infants , compared to more than a half of infants dying in a 1000 births in the 19th and 20th Century.
The above issues such as alcohol, smoking, obesity, dental health, mental health, and an aging demographical have all influences such things as many health related problems and life expectancy. Within this assignment I have described the current patterns of ill health and how they are monitored and I have also compared historical and current features of public health.
Campbell, Denis. (2011). Experts call for 10% ‘fat tax’ on soft drinks to prevent obesity. Available: http://www. guardian. co. uk/society/2011/dec/21/sugary-soft-drinks-obesity-tax? CMP=twt_gu. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Department of Health. (2012). Healthy Lives, Healthy People; A call to action on obesity in England. Available: http://www. manchesterpublichealthdevelopment. org/mphds/download-files/pdf/chd/2011/DOH-Healthy%20Lives,%20Healthy%20People%20Report%202011. pdf. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Department of Health. (2011). Department calls for action on obesity. Available: http://www. dh. gov. uk/health/2011/10/call-to-action/. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Mental Health Foundation. (2012). mental health statistics. Available: http://www. mentalhealth. org. uk/help-information/mental-health-statistics/. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Northern Ireland executive. (2011). Recent changes in Northern Ireland life expectancy. Available: http://www. northernireland. gov. uk/index/media-centre/news-departments/news-dhssps/news-dhssps-february-archive-2011/news-dhssps-24012011-recent-changes-in. htm. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
World Health Organisation. (2010). 10 facts on obesity. Available: http://www. who. int/features/factfiles/obesity/en/. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
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1. In which phase of mitosis do each of the following occur:
a. Centromeres split and chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell anaphase
b. Chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes prophase
c. The nuclear membrane disappears prophase
d. Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell metaphase
2. What does your data indicate about the rate of cell division in cancerous tissue compared to the rate of cell division in normal tissue? What data did you use to answer this question? The mitotic index shows that the rate of cell division has incresed in cancerous cells.
3. Which type of cancer is the fastest growing? Explain your answer, using your relevant data. The fastest growing cancer is ovarian cancer. It has the highest Mitiotic index.
4. With what you have observed in this lab, if you were to compare tissue sample from normal breast tissue and cancerous breast tissue:
a. Would you expect to see a difference in the rate of cell division in the cancerous breast tissue compared to the normal breast tissue? Explain your answer. Yes, cancerous tissue has a higher mitotic index than non cancerous tissue.
b. Could you make a prediction about the average % dividing cells in the cancerous breast tissue? Explain your answer. Based on the other tissue samples I would estimate a mitiotic index between 23 and 40.
5. Consider the % dividing cells in normal lung, normal stomach, and normal ovarian tissue.
Why do you think there are more cells dividing in the stomach and ovary tissue than in the lung tissue? The stomach has a high turn over of cells due to food, acid, and churning in the stomach. Ovarian cells are constantly reproducing as part of the menstrual cycle.
6. This lab explores three common cancers.
An additional form of cancer – Skin Cancer – used to be seen only in older individuals but is now seen in younger individuals, many in their early 20s. Skin cancer results from accumulated mutations to the DNA of skin cells, caused primarily by sun exposure. What factors do you think may be contributing to the increase in skin cancer among young adults? The increased rates could be due to exposure to an increased amount of carcinogens like UV Rays and toxins in the environment.
Fiset, Valerie, et al. “Development and evaluation of a decision aid for patients with stage IV non‐small cell lung cancer.” Health Expectations 3.2 (2000): 125-136.
Varella-Garcia, M., et al. “EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridisation assay: guidelines for application to non-small-cell lung cancer.” Journal of clinical pathology 62.11 (2009): 970-977.
Beland, Michael D., et al. “Primary non–small cell lung cancer: review of frequency, location, and time of recurrence after radiofrequency ablation.” Radiology 254.1 (2009): 301-307.
In 1555, during the Ming dynasty imperial Zong Shi, a royal physician fled to the city of Zhangzhou (Fujian province) because it is not satisfied with the emperor was very cruel. The physician was settled in a temple located in the East Pushan under Zhangzhou City as a monk. He witnessed the suffering and misery of the people due to incurable disease so that he felt compelled to provide aid to all residents. By using a secret potion from the palace, he finally managed to concoct a drug called “Pien Tze Huang” that have meaning only one tablet / pill (Pien) can relieve inflammation.
At first, Pien Tze Huang blended in very traditional. Potions are passed down for generations from one generation to another. Until 1911, a monk from the village Xiangyan Zhachuang who is also heir herb Pien Tze Huang realized how important these drugs, so he was trying to develop a more professional manner. Finally, in 1956, in the village of Xiangyan Zhachuang developed into Zhangzhou Pharmaceutical Factory Pharmaceutical today. Due to exceptional properties, together with Pien Tze Huang Chinese immigrants began to spread widely overseas Chinese, especially to Southeast Asia.
In 1960 through Pien Tze Huang, Hong Kong began to spread and used by the Japanese and in the same year formed the Society of Pien Tze Huang Users in Tokyo. When the Vietnam War-one, Pien Tze Huang widely used by the U. S. army as one of the drug is needed in the war in the jungle. Realizing the benefits of Pien Tze Huang in treating gunshot wounds, stabbed, ulcers and snake bites that can not be treated with antibiotics. In the early 1950’s Prof. Sheng Guo Rong never publish cure cancer patients treated with Pien Tze Huang for the first time.
Since then, many cases have been cured so that Pien Tze Huang has been shown to reduce the symptoms of cancer. According to traditional Chinese medicine, cancer is caused by the accumulation of vital energy, blood, phlegm and dampness that inhibit blood vessels that eventually form tumors. This accumulation is caused by a variety of pathogenic factors acting on the human body. Therefore treatment with traditional Chinese medicine focuses on relieving the blockage of blood, soften and dissolve hard mass.
Pien Tze Huang has been accepted as a cancer drug both in China and abroad, and have achieved satisfactory results in the treatment of cancer, especially cancer of the liver, stomach and colon cancer. Because it can boost immunity, Pien Tze Huang is very important in the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. Experiments conducted by the laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine, China indicated that Pien Tze Huang has real effects reduce the size of the cancer, relieve pain, reduce clinical symptoms and prolong life in cancer patients.
From the results of research and clinical practice of medical scientists today, Pien Tze Huang is also recognized as a drug that can prevent inflammation, reduce heat, neutralize toxins, relieve pain due to infection, can also treat hepatitis, liver disease, inflammation or swelling of the liver. From many studies it can be concluded that Pien Tze Huang is the traditional medicine of the most reliable and trustworthy benefits compared with other drugs. Pharmacologists also began conducting research on Pien Tze Huang in treating AIDS.
Essential ingredients in the Making Pien Tze Huang Pien Tze Huang in the creation, there are four main kinds of materials that have very important functions, among others:
1. Shexiang (Moschus) Shexiang is a sac located below the navel (Kista Subumbilikus) a kind of deer (Moschus Moschiferus Linnaeus) adult males. Shexiang has a distinctive fragrance that is useful to stimulate awareness, improve blood circulation, relieve pain, colds, injuries due to falls, and others.
2. Niuhuang (Calculus Bovis) Niuhuang are gallstones in the bladder and bile duct cattle (Bos Taurusdomesticus Gmelin). Drug ingredient is efficacious in removing heat, wind, cramps, sputum, stimulating awareness, relieve swelling of the throat, mouth sores, and so on.
3. Shedan (Fel Serpentis) Shedan is dried snake bile is efficacious in removing heat, normal lung function and liver, sharpen vision, launching the release of bile, cure cough and other infections.
4. Tianqi (Radix Notoginseng) Tianqi called Sanqi, which is the root of Panaxnotoginseng. Tianqi has a fragrance like ginseng and mostly grown in Southern China.
Tianqi has the function of increasing the volume of the coronary arteries, increase the levels of oxygen and nutrients needed by the heart muscle, relieve pain, injury from falls can also launch frozen blood. Apart from the four main ingredients mentioned above, Pien Tze Huang was also mixed with some kind of other natural ingredients that also have efficacy in the treatment of various diseases. Efficacy of Pien Tze Huang Pien Tze Huang is a drug which is produced from Zhangzhou Pharmaceutical Factory which serves to cure several diseases and maintain a healthy body.
The results of a clinical study of the set of Shanghai Traditional Health Pharmacology, Institute of Drug Research Zhang Zhou and Pharmacology Research Institute Fujian drug located in China (PRC) Pien Tze Huang showed efficacy in the treatment and prevention of disease, which we can describe as follows below: 1. In the field of healing A. Tackling heart abnormalities Liver function abnormalities: elevated levels of ALT, AST, GGT, Alkaline Phosphatase and blood bilirubin Hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B and non-A non-B, either acute, chronic or fulminant Fatty liver (fatty liver) Liver disease due to drug toxicity.
Alcoholic liver disease Hepatic insufficiency Liver cancer B. Tackling inflammation: Inflammation and enlarged prostate Inflammation of the ear, nose and throat Inflammation of the eye Inflammation of the mouth and gums Purulent inflammation of the skin, such as boils, abscesses, ulcers C. Burn Injuries: Scalded, touching hot objects Burning fire and sunshine D. Wound: Gunshot wound Stab wounds, stabbed and another injured due to sharp objects Injury blow a blunt object E. Eliminating pain F. Sprain, sprained G. Wasp bites, snakes and other venomous animals H. Cancer, especially liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. I.
Before and after surgery J. Cure dengue fever. 2. In the field of prevention A. Strengthen the function of the liver and protects the liver B. Preventing alcohol intoxication C. Preventing the emergence of anxiety, difficulty sleeping, irritability, indigestion caused by fatigue and stress. D. Skin care, especially to make luminous fresh face, eliminate and prevent acne and allergies to cosmetic ingredients. Apart from clinical studies have also been conducted scientific studies concluded that Pien Tze Huang is safe and does not cause negative effects, even at 40 times the dose administration adults for a period of up to 30 days.
It can also be used for all ages, from children aged 1 year to old age. Just keep in mind that Pien Tze Huang should not be given to pregnant women. Pien Tze Huang in The Eyes of The World Long ago, many Chinese migrants using Pien Tze Huang as the main drug to prevent infection and pain. They always use Pien Tze Huang on a regular basis in their life to relieve pain and fever caused by hepatitis, sore throat, burns, burned by hot objects, sharp objects stabbed, shot and bee bites / snake.
They are also accustomed to using Pien Tze Huang before and after surgery to stop bleeding, prevent infection and speed the healing process. In Indonesia, where many people contracted hepatitis Pien Tze Huang realize that is a panacea for protecting the liver and hepatitis. In Thailand too many cancer patients taking Pien Tze Huang because it can provide a greater life expectancy for their reply. In recent years more and more people in the world who know the benefits of this elixir.
As one obvious example, Pien Tze Huang are now registered and have been tested in the U. S. Department of Health as a drug that may be circulating and sold freely. Besides pharmacological researchers from several European countries, Japan, Korea and India have also done research on Pien Tze Huang and the results proved to be very satisfactory. The Chinese migrants often said that you should always remember to bring supplies are 3 kinds of airfare, passport and Pien Tze Huang when you will travel far. Our hope that Pien Tze Huang can bring happiness to you all.
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