Newly born babies are dependent on parents or carers to keep them safe, make sure they are fed, bathed and warm. Infants also depend on parents and carers to make available to speak to and give them encouragement in order to persuade intellectual development. Intellectual stimulation will place the basis for the development of a child’s self-image. Social and emotional needs Infants need to make safe and steady relations with their carers throughout the first year of life. Also making devoted attachment, this procedure is called bonding. If there is a relationship between the carer and the child, this may end to letdown to bond or make a safe attachment in future relationships. Having a loving bond with parents or carer in infancy may be crucial in order to allow the expansion of self-esteem.
Childhood Physical and Intellectual needs As children grow up they improve a series of skills like their body skills (Example: Running and swimming), their charisma, social, creativity, and logic skills. As children new skills, children enjoy doing activities by themselves they become more independent. Children will need useful chances to learn and develop. A child’s personality will begin to expand from communication with other people throughout this stage of his/her life.
Social and emotional needs Children are still dependent on adults to provide a steady, loving habitat for them and even though children may discover along with research, carers often need to direct and control what they do. Grown-up carers will need to supply for the young one’s physical needs also form physically and emotionally secure surroundings for them. All through primary socialisation, children should sense they fit in to a family or group, and they will have a need to feel loved and included in relations throughout this stage.
Adolescence Physical and intellectual needs Young people increase a growing level of ability and knowledge as they develop towards adulthood. Care needs will consist of good educational opportunities to expand sensible and intellectual abilities. Social and emotional needs They require belonging to a family or care group may still be significant; adolescents will be gradually more apprehensive to blend in with groups of their own age. Adolescents frequently duplicate each other’s technique of garments and appearance. Adolescent will be capable of making independent choices regarding physical needs also deciding their own acquaintance groups and lifestyle. Mutually self-image and self esteem are powerfully influenced by social and learning experiences at this period.
Adults Physical and intellectual needs Many adults obtain practical help and support because they cannot survive entirely independent lives. Adults with knowledge difficulties may maintain to want support in order to make suitable conclusions. Adult with physical disabilities may require a variety of physical and practical care, such as supporting with mobility, cooking and dressing. Social and emotional needs Service users will also require feeling secure, incorporated and valued. The worth of an adult person’s personality and self-worth will be influenced by the way other citizens treat them.
Older adults Physical and intellectual needs Numerous elder service users require help with physical care such as getting bathed and dressed. Social and emotional needs Older adults’ service users might be at jeopardy of not being treated with dignity and respect. A quantity of older adults may have particular wants for encouraging stimulation and relations. An individual’s appearances and self-worth will be influenced by the value of the care that they are given.
The final stages of life Physical needs When people are dying, they will frequently contain difficult physical needs for comfort, for instance pain relief, keeping the mouth moist, and so on. Social and emotional needs People in the ultimate periods of life might be nervous, and will be in need of emotional support. They will normally want to see friends and relatives, because the need to belong and fit in is very vital. People from time to time need to make sense of their lives and they may benefit from psychotherapy to allow them to manage. The wants to feel that life has had a value may represent a self-esteem need for many people.
This year alone, approximately 1 million people will die from cancer. It is one of the leading causes of death in the world, second only to heart disease. According to the American Cancer Society (2012) states that 1 out of 2 men and 1 out of 3 women will get cancer. In a world as medically advanced as ours, one would think that we would already have the upper hand where this disease is concerned, and have a cure– but we don’t. According to “What is Cancer? ” website n. d. “defined Cancer as not just one disease but many diseases in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and form tumors”.
These tumors can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Crosta, P. (2006r, October 4) explains that once this happens the tumors have the ability to invade other issues and organs. When the abnormal cells form tumors and start traveling from one part of the body to another, it is referred to as metastasis. Additional symptoms may appear and will depend on the area of the body where the cancer has spread. For example, if the cancer spread to the liver, the liver may become enlarged and jaundice may set in.
Also the bones can become painful, brittle and break easily. Human cancer is as old as the human race with the oldest known documented case found in an ancient Egyptian papyri and occurred during 3000 BC to 1500 BC.. This report details 8 cases of tumors or ulcers of the breast that had to be removed by cauterization (which is a method for destroying something with a hot instrument called a ‘fire drill. ) Unfortunately, there wasn’t much that could be done, only pallative treatment (relieving of symptoms of a disease without effecting a cure).
It wasn’t until 1932 when Louis Leakey found the oldest possible malignant tumor in fossilized bones recovered in Egypt, and had features suggestive of Burkittts Lymphoma. (History of Cancer, n. d. ). The Medicine World website explains that Hippocrates (460 BC –370 BC) who was one of the most influential figures in the history of medicine. He was referred to as the Father of Western Medicine, and was the first to notice the differences between malignant and benign tumors.
He noted that the blood vessels around a malignant tumor looked like crab claws, so he named them “karkinos (which is the Greek word for crab. ) He used it to describe tumors that can progress in to ulceration. Hippocrates also believed the body was composed of 4 fluids; phlegm, blood, yellow bile and black bile, and black bile is what he believed to have caused cancer. This theory rang true for another until the 16th Century. Cancer was considered to be incurable, except for a menagarie of temporary fixes that included creams, ointments and pastes made from things like barley and pigs ear. (History of Cancer, n. d. )
During the 17th Century, the lymphatic system was discovered, and from this we were sure to gain extreme knowledge of the lymphatic system and how it works, and if there are any abnormalities. In the 18th Century, physician Jean Astruc and Chemist Bernard who led the research that would either confirm or disprove theories related to the origins of cancer. John Hunter, a Scottish surgeon suggested that some cancers might be cured by surgery. In addition, he discussed various methods of checking to see if the tumors were moveable.
One way was by checking to see if the tumor had invaded nearby tissues, if not then there was no harm in removing it. (History of Cancer, n. d. ) It was the 20th Century that brought the most progression in relation to cancer research; mainly because of the invention of better microscopes. Which were used in order for scientists to gain more knowledge about the cancer process. Not until the microscope was one able to see the noticeable difference between cancer cells and the surrounding normal cells. Fayed, (July 8, 2009) a journalist for the Medical Review Board states “each individual type of Cancer has its own set of symptoms.
These symptoms are based on original location and stage of cancer. In addition, to a more generalized set of symptoms, e. g. upset stomach, diarrhea, fever, headache and pain. ” To be more specific if it were Colon Caner that you have, in addition to the regular symptoms like fever, pain, and nausea you may experience a sudden change in your bowel movements, or the presence of blood in the stool. There are various risk factors that contribute to the chances of getting cancer. Risk factors can be classified into two categories, modifiable and non-modifiable.
Modifiable risk factors are things that can be altered and non-modifiable risk factors are those that can’t. Some of the modifiable risk factors are diet, body weight, how much exercise a person participates in, and the lifestyle choices they make, those are smoking, drinking and drugs. Non-modifiable risk factors are things like a person’s sex, age, or ethnicity. In addition to these risk factors, there are several viruses that have been linked to cancer, human papillomavirus a direct cause of cervical cancer), Hepatitis B and C ( which is a cause of liver cancer).
As well as Epstein-Barr virus (which has been linked some childhood cancers) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anything else that may suppress the immune system. With no specific cause for cancer, this disease does not discriminate, it will attack men, women, young, old, black and white. The American Cancer Society (2010) published that there are approximately 200 types of Cancer. The number one Cancer Killer in men and women is Lung Cancer, second in men is Prostate Cancer and second in women is Cervical Cancer.
According to the Health Disparities in Cancer (December 6, 2012), “The Center for Disease Control’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control monitor these numbers annually, and statistics show that approximately 225,000 new cases of lung cancer, 100,000 cases of prostate cancer and 300,000 new cases of cervical cancer are reported every year. Treatment options for cancer depend on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer (how much it has spread), the person’s age, status of the person’s health, and additional personal characteristics.
Unfortunately there is no single treatment for this disease and patients usually receive a combination of therapies and pallative care. Usually the treatment options fall under the categories of: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, or gene therapy. The oldest known treatment is surgery. If the cancer has not metastasized, then there is possibility that surgery can completely cure a patient by removal of the cancer. After the disease has spread then it impossible to operate.
Radiation is also referred to as Radio Therapy and destroys the cancer cells by high energy rays., causing them to die. Next we are on to chemo-therapy which utilizes chemicals that interfere with the cell division process. Treatments target any rapidly dividing cells not necessarily just cancer ones. This option is usually available to treat cancers that have metastasized because the medicine travels through out the body. With this option does come additional side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and fatigue just to name a few. Immunotherapy targets the immune system of the patient to fight off the tumor. Local immunotherapy injects a treatment into an affected area.
For example, to cause inflammation which in turn causes the tumor to shrink. The next type of immunotherapy is systematic immunothereapy and the treats the entire body by administering an agent in to the body that will shrink tumors. One example of this is Interferon. This type of treatment isn’t very old, therefore does not show a lot of statistics but researchers have had success with this option. Breast and Prostate cancers both have been linked to some types of hormones, so hormone therapy is designed to alter hormone production in the body so the cancer cells stop growing or are killed completely.
Finally we talk about gene therapy and the role it plays in the treatment of cancer. Its goal is to replace damaged genes with ones that work to address the root cause of cancer. For example, researchers are trying to replace the damaged gene that signals cells to stop dividing with a copy of a working gene. This type of therapy is brand new and has not yet yielded any successful treatments. (Duncan 2012. ) The National Institute for Health mentions another option, it is referred to as CAM, which stands for Complementary Alternative Medicine.
CAM is defined as a group of diverse medical and healthy care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine. Complementary medicine refers to the use of CAM together with conventional medicine. For instance, regular physician monitored treatment along with acupuncture to lessen pain. CAM is not a practice that all physicians believe in. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which conducted a comprehensive survey of CAM use by Americans, showed that approximately 38% of adults use CAM.
Complementary Alternative Medicine is grouped into broad categories such as natural products, mind and body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. (CDC, 2012) These include herbal medicines, (known as botanicals) vitamins, minerals and other natural products. Many are sold over the counter (OTC). In addition, “Probiotic’s” which are live micro-organisms, usually bacteria. ) They are similar to the microorganisms found in the human digestive tract and may have beneficial effects. “Probiotic’s” are available in food (e. g. yogurts) or as a dietary supplement.
Mind and body medicine incorporates practices like meditation, yoga, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, progressive relaxation, and qi gong (a Chinese meditative exercise. ) Next there are always on-going clinical trials for cancer. These are beneficial in testing new forms of treatment. One on-going clinical trial is THC Therapy. This form of CAM is becoming increasingly more popular. Unfortunately there are still more against the use of medicinal marijuana as a possible cure for Cancer. Regardless of what additional form of therapy you choose to engage in you should always with your physician first.
While doing this cancer research I found proof that back in 1974 the U. S. Government conducted a study in which lab rats who had cancerous tumors were injected with THC and others were injected with a placebo. The results showed those injected with the placebo all died from their cancerous tumors and the ones given the THC treatments had their tumors disappear completely or substantially shrink after a few treatments. Shortly after this study the U. S. Government patent’s the rights to medical marijuana. Maybe closer to a cure than we are aware of.
With all that we have learned about cancer thus far and everything we know we will learn, we can rest assured that the possibility for a cure is there. Yet unfortunately until then we will endure an increase in cancer immortality statistics. We live in a world that is so scientifically advanced how could we not find a cure for Cancer—The Silent Killer.
American Cancer Society. (2012). Cancer facts and figures. Retrieved from http://www. cancer. org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-figures-2012
National Cancer Institute of Health. 92012). What you need to know about cancer.
Attention Getter: What do Sheryl Crow, Judy Blume, Suzanne Somers, Wanda Sykes and my Mother have in common? They are all breast cancer survivors.
Topic Disclosure: Today I am going to talk to you about breast cancer information and awareness
Preview: During my speech
I will discuss:
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Treatment and Side effects
Ways to lower risk and Statistics
Audience Link: There is a large amount of men and women who are diagnosed with breast cancer everyday but they usually don’t know how it forms and ways it can be treated. Breast cancer is a very serious disease that shouldn’t be taken likely.
Even if you do not have breast cancer, chances are that you know or will know someone who will get it. After this speech I hope to inform and give you knowledge about breast cancer. I. A) Breastcancer. org (2013) states: Breast cancer symptoms vary widely, from lumps to swelling and skin changes. Breast cancer has no obvious symptoms at all until tumors are formed. Just as no two people are exactly alike no two-breast cancers are exactly the same either. Webmd. com (2013) explains, when a tumor develops signs of early stages of breast cancer includes:
A lump in the breast or underarm
Swelling in the armpit.
Pain or tenderness in the breast
A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast
Any change in the size, contour, texture or temperature of the breast
Marble like area under the skin B) Cancer. org (2012) explains the different types of testing and diagnosis for breast cancer.
Mammogram: Is a machine, which takes an x-ray of the breast that shows any tumors or lumps on the breast. Two types of Mammogram include screening and diagnosis mammogram. -Self
Exam: Which can be preformed in a warm shower, in front of a mirror or lying down. -Biopsy: A small operation done to remove tissue from the area of concern in the body. (20% turn out to have cancer when done)
Transition: Now that I talked about the symptoms and diagnosis of breast cancer, I am now going to talk about the treatment and side effects. II. A) Cdc. gov (2012) indicates, breast cancer is treated in several ways. It is depended on the kind of cancer and how far along it has spread. Treatment included surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy and radiation.
Surgery: Doctor cuts out and removes cancer from the tissue * Chemotherapy: Using special medicines or drugs to shrink or kill the cancer, Drugs include pills or IV. (Maybe both)
Hormonal Therapy: Some cancers need hormones to grow, used to block cancer cells from getting hormones to grow.
Biological Therapy: Works with your body’s immune system to help fight the cancer or control the side effects.
Radiation: The use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Treatments are a long process, depending on what stage you’re in will indicate how long your treatment may take. B) There are many side effects that go along with each treatment. Some people tend to get more while others tend to just stick with the most common.
Having more side effects would be something that is towards and individual, and matters by how strong ones immune system is. Some of the effects would be: anxiety, constipation, dehydration, dizziness, hair loss, fever, itching and etc. Transition: Now that I talked about the different types of treatments and side effects I will talk about the statistics and ways to lower your risk. III.
A) Medicinenet. com (2012) states that about 1 in 8 women (just under 12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
In 2011, an estimated 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer was expected to be diagnosed.
2,140 in men
1 in 1000 men will risk breast cancer
In 2011 more than 2. 6 million survivors.
Older you get the higher your chance to get breast cancer
B) Mayoclinic. com (2011) indicates that lifestyle changes have been shown in studies to decrease cancer risk even in high-risk women. Ways of prevention would be:
Be physically active
Limit exposure to plastic (BPA)(Synthetic estrogen)
Summary: While being more aware of your body, you will have the information to prevent a disease that is able to take control of your body.
Review: Today I talked about the symptoms and diagnosis, treatment and side effects, and ways to lower your risk and statistics of breast cancer. Tie Back: While my mom isn’t a movie star, she fought her battles like one showing optimism, strength and elegance in her lowest time of all.
Breast Cancer. (2012, September 26). Breast Cancer Symptoms. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from www. medicinenet. com/
Breast Cancer: Symptoms & Types. (n. d. ). WebMD – Better information. Better health. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from http://www. webmd. com/breast-cancer/guide/breast-cancer-symptoms-and-types
Breast cancer prevention: How to reduce your risk – MayoClinic. com. (2012, December 12). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from http://www. mayoclinic. com/health/breast-cancer-prevention/WO00091
Breastcancer. org – Breast Cancer Information and Awareness. (2012, November 29).
Breastcancer. org – Breast Cancer Information and Awareness. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from http://www. breastcancer. org/
CDC – Breast Cancer Treatment. (2012, January 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from http://www. cdc. gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/treatment. htm.
In 1555, during the Ming dynasty imperial Zong Shi, a royal physician fled to the city of Zhangzhou (Fujian province) because it is not satisfied with the emperor was very cruel. The physician was settled in a temple located in the East Pushan under Zhangzhou City as a monk. He witnessed the suffering and misery of the people due to incurable disease so that he felt compelled to provide aid to all residents. By using a secret potion from the palace, he finally managed to concoct a drug called “Pien Tze Huang” that have meaning only one tablet / pill (Pien) can relieve inflammation.
At first, Pien Tze Huang blended in very traditional. Potions are passed down for generations from one generation to another. Until 1911, a monk from the village Xiangyan Zhachuang who is also heir herb Pien Tze Huang realized how important these drugs, so he was trying to develop a more professional manner. Finally, in 1956, in the village of Xiangyan Zhachuang developed into Zhangzhou Pharmaceutical Factory Pharmaceutical today. Due to exceptional properties, together with Pien Tze Huang Chinese immigrants began to spread widely overseas Chinese, especially to Southeast Asia.
In 1960 through Pien Tze Huang, Hong Kong began to spread and used by the Japanese and in the same year formed the Society of Pien Tze Huang Users in Tokyo. When the Vietnam War-one, Pien Tze Huang widely used by the U. S. army as one of the drug is needed in the war in the jungle. Realizing the benefits of Pien Tze Huang in treating gunshot wounds, stabbed, ulcers and snake bites that can not be treated with antibiotics. In the early 1950’s Prof. Sheng Guo Rong never publish cure cancer patients treated with Pien Tze Huang for the first time.
Since then, many cases have been cured so that Pien Tze Huang has been shown to reduce the symptoms of cancer. According to traditional Chinese medicine, cancer is caused by the accumulation of vital energy, blood, phlegm and dampness that inhibit blood vessels that eventually form tumors. This accumulation is caused by a variety of pathogenic factors acting on the human body. Therefore treatment with traditional Chinese medicine focuses on relieving the blockage of blood, soften and dissolve hard mass.
Pien Tze Huang has been accepted as a cancer drug both in China and abroad, and have achieved satisfactory results in the treatment of cancer, especially cancer of the liver, stomach and colon cancer. Because it can boost immunity, Pien Tze Huang is very important in the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. Experiments conducted by the laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine, China indicated that Pien Tze Huang has real effects reduce the size of the cancer, relieve pain, reduce clinical symptoms and prolong life in cancer patients.
From the results of research and clinical practice of medical scientists today, Pien Tze Huang is also recognized as a drug that can prevent inflammation, reduce heat, neutralize toxins, relieve pain due to infection, can also treat hepatitis, liver disease, inflammation or swelling of the liver. From many studies it can be concluded that Pien Tze Huang is the traditional medicine of the most reliable and trustworthy benefits compared with other drugs. Pharmacologists also began conducting research on Pien Tze Huang in treating AIDS.
Essential ingredients in the Making Pien Tze Huang Pien Tze Huang in the creation, there are four main kinds of materials that have very important functions, among others:
1. Shexiang (Moschus) Shexiang is a sac located below the navel (Kista Subumbilikus) a kind of deer (Moschus Moschiferus Linnaeus) adult males. Shexiang has a distinctive fragrance that is useful to stimulate awareness, improve blood circulation, relieve pain, colds, injuries due to falls, and others.
2. Niuhuang (Calculus Bovis) Niuhuang are gallstones in the bladder and bile duct cattle (Bos Taurusdomesticus Gmelin). Drug ingredient is efficacious in removing heat, wind, cramps, sputum, stimulating awareness, relieve swelling of the throat, mouth sores, and so on.
3. Shedan (Fel Serpentis) Shedan is dried snake bile is efficacious in removing heat, normal lung function and liver, sharpen vision, launching the release of bile, cure cough and other infections.
4. Tianqi (Radix Notoginseng) Tianqi called Sanqi, which is the root of Panaxnotoginseng. Tianqi has a fragrance like ginseng and mostly grown in Southern China.
Tianqi has the function of increasing the volume of the coronary arteries, increase the levels of oxygen and nutrients needed by the heart muscle, relieve pain, injury from falls can also launch frozen blood. Apart from the four main ingredients mentioned above, Pien Tze Huang was also mixed with some kind of other natural ingredients that also have efficacy in the treatment of various diseases. Efficacy of Pien Tze Huang Pien Tze Huang is a drug which is produced from Zhangzhou Pharmaceutical Factory which serves to cure several diseases and maintain a healthy body.
The results of a clinical study of the set of Shanghai Traditional Health Pharmacology, Institute of Drug Research Zhang Zhou and Pharmacology Research Institute Fujian drug located in China (PRC) Pien Tze Huang showed efficacy in the treatment and prevention of disease, which we can describe as follows below: 1. In the field of healing A. Tackling heart abnormalities Liver function abnormalities: elevated levels of ALT, AST, GGT, Alkaline Phosphatase and blood bilirubin Hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B and non-A non-B, either acute, chronic or fulminant Fatty liver (fatty liver) Liver disease due to drug toxicity.
Alcoholic liver disease Hepatic insufficiency Liver cancer B. Tackling inflammation: Inflammation and enlarged prostate Inflammation of the ear, nose and throat Inflammation of the eye Inflammation of the mouth and gums Purulent inflammation of the skin, such as boils, abscesses, ulcers C. Burn Injuries: Scalded, touching hot objects Burning fire and sunshine D. Wound: Gunshot wound Stab wounds, stabbed and another injured due to sharp objects Injury blow a blunt object E. Eliminating pain F. Sprain, sprained G. Wasp bites, snakes and other venomous animals H. Cancer, especially liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. I.
Before and after surgery J. Cure dengue fever. 2. In the field of prevention A. Strengthen the function of the liver and protects the liver B. Preventing alcohol intoxication C. Preventing the emergence of anxiety, difficulty sleeping, irritability, indigestion caused by fatigue and stress. D. Skin care, especially to make luminous fresh face, eliminate and prevent acne and allergies to cosmetic ingredients. Apart from clinical studies have also been conducted scientific studies concluded that Pien Tze Huang is safe and does not cause negative effects, even at 40 times the dose administration adults for a period of up to 30 days.
It can also be used for all ages, from children aged 1 year to old age. Just keep in mind that Pien Tze Huang should not be given to pregnant women. Pien Tze Huang in The Eyes of The World Long ago, many Chinese migrants using Pien Tze Huang as the main drug to prevent infection and pain. They always use Pien Tze Huang on a regular basis in their life to relieve pain and fever caused by hepatitis, sore throat, burns, burned by hot objects, sharp objects stabbed, shot and bee bites / snake.
They are also accustomed to using Pien Tze Huang before and after surgery to stop bleeding, prevent infection and speed the healing process. In Indonesia, where many people contracted hepatitis Pien Tze Huang realize that is a panacea for protecting the liver and hepatitis. In Thailand too many cancer patients taking Pien Tze Huang because it can provide a greater life expectancy for their reply. In recent years more and more people in the world who know the benefits of this elixir.
As one obvious example, Pien Tze Huang are now registered and have been tested in the U. S. Department of Health as a drug that may be circulating and sold freely. Besides pharmacological researchers from several European countries, Japan, Korea and India have also done research on Pien Tze Huang and the results proved to be very satisfactory. The Chinese migrants often said that you should always remember to bring supplies are 3 kinds of airfare, passport and Pien Tze Huang when you will travel far. Our hope that Pien Tze Huang can bring happiness to you all.
Unschuld, Paul U. Medicine in China: A history of ideas. Vol. 13. Univ of California Press, 2010.
Sivin, Nathan. Traditional medicine in contemporary China: a partial translation of Revised outline of Chinese medicine (1972): with an introductory study on change in present day and early medicine. No. 2. University of Michigan Center for chinese, 1987.
Bensky, Dan, Andrew Gamble, and Ted J. Kaptchuk. Chinese herbal medicine: materia medica. Eastland Press, 1993.
1. In which phase of mitosis do each of the following occur:
a. Centromeres split and chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell anaphase
b. Chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes prophase
c. The nuclear membrane disappears prophase
d. Sister chromatids line up in the center of the cell metaphase
2. What does your data indicate about the rate of cell division in cancerous tissue compared to the rate of cell division in normal tissue? What data did you use to answer this question? The mitotic index shows that the rate of cell division has incresed in cancerous cells.
3. Which type of cancer is the fastest growing? Explain your answer, using your relevant data. The fastest growing cancer is ovarian cancer. It has the highest Mitiotic index.
4. With what you have observed in this lab, if you were to compare tissue sample from normal breast tissue and cancerous breast tissue:
a. Would you expect to see a difference in the rate of cell division in the cancerous breast tissue compared to the normal breast tissue? Explain your answer. Yes, cancerous tissue has a higher mitotic index than non cancerous tissue.
b. Could you make a prediction about the average % dividing cells in the cancerous breast tissue? Explain your answer. Based on the other tissue samples I would estimate a mitiotic index between 23 and 40.
5. Consider the % dividing cells in normal lung, normal stomach, and normal ovarian tissue.
Why do you think there are more cells dividing in the stomach and ovary tissue than in the lung tissue? The stomach has a high turn over of cells due to food, acid, and churning in the stomach. Ovarian cells are constantly reproducing as part of the menstrual cycle.
6. This lab explores three common cancers.
An additional form of cancer – Skin Cancer – used to be seen only in older individuals but is now seen in younger individuals, many in their early 20s. Skin cancer results from accumulated mutations to the DNA of skin cells, caused primarily by sun exposure. What factors do you think may be contributing to the increase in skin cancer among young adults? The increased rates could be due to exposure to an increased amount of carcinogens like UV Rays and toxins in the environment.
Fiset, Valerie, et al. “Development and evaluation of a decision aid for patients with stage IV non‐small cell lung cancer.” Health Expectations 3.2 (2000): 125-136.
Varella-Garcia, M., et al. “EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridisation assay: guidelines for application to non-small-cell lung cancer.” Journal of clinical pathology 62.11 (2009): 970-977.
Beland, Michael D., et al. “Primary non–small cell lung cancer: review of frequency, location, and time of recurrence after radiofrequency ablation.” Radiology 254.1 (2009): 301-307.
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In this assignment I am going to describe the current patterns of ill health and how they are monitored, I will also compare historical and current features of public health. Through the past century the health of the public has changed dramatically with such issues as polio, measles, rubella and other infectious diseases have almost been eradicated but now such issues are arising being; obesity, alcohol abuse, smoking, an aging demographical , mental health and dental issues.
All the issues that have been mentioned above have influence a rise in such conditions as coronary heart disease, diabetes type two and cancer. Compare to now and the early 19th and 20th century, a number of infectious diseases was the cause of death with not many individuals living past 50 due to that lack of health care, vaccinations and information that is available now, but in this modern era with many people living into their 90s and older people are still dying in their young years due to non-informed choices, the environment in which they live and their lifestyle.
An escalating problem in the 21st century is the rise of obesity which in turn leads to problems with the individual’s health. It is a worldwide problem with many people making the non-informed choice when it comes to healthy eating and exercise. According to the Department of health the cost to the NHS is estimated to be ? 5. 1 billion a year that is used to rectify and cure such problems that obesity has caused.
Obesity is when an individual is overweight and their weight is greater than what is considered healthy for a person’s height, gender and the individuals BMI (Body mass index), this is due to not balancing energy input to energy output, also not calorie counting the maximum calorie intake a day is 2000 for an average individual. Obesity can cause such non-communicable diseases as coronary heart disease, diabetes type two and preventable cancers. According to the WHO 2012 overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in low and middle income countries and also in built-up areas.
Authorities locally, nationally and worldwide is constantly trying to provide us about making informed choices about such issues as walking instead of taking the bus/ stairs, switching unhealthy snacks for a piece of fruit or vegetables, also getting at least a hour of exercise everyday. According to the department of Health 2011, Obesity is a big factor that cause a lot of health problems and England has one of the highest rates of obesity on Europe with over 60% of adults overweight or obese.
Childhood obesity is increasing with a third of ten and 11 year olds overweight in England also. Obesity in childhood has risen greatly over the past two decades not only in the UK but also worldwide. According to the WHO 2012, childhood obesity is the most serious public health issue of today. Individuals quality of life is affected largely with continuous health problems that is all sourced to have come from been overweight, the WHO suggests that at least 2. 6 million people die each year as a result of being obese or obesity.
With some individuals that are severely obese unable to walk a long distance or have some issues about not leaving the house due to not been confident about their body leading them to eat more. According to the government they are considering bringing in a “fat tax” although this is already brought in, Denmark has taxed products with saturated fats like butter, in France they are planning to implement a tax on fizzy drinks, while Hungary has brought in a extra tax on “high-fat-sugar-salt” products and also Finland is considering placing a tax on sweets.
(The guardian, 2011) If the Government brought this tax in this would help reduce the rates of the soaring numbers of obese people and although the department of health has yet to say if they are taking any action to this, the government have launched a campaign “ Call to Action to obesity”, this is an campaign in which the government is trying to reduce the amount of people that are obese through working with clinical experts and charities to help fight the causes and consequences of been overweight, also the NHS workers, employers food industries, and the physical activity sector all to help fight the soaring rates of obesity by 2020.
Smoking is one of the unhealthiest addictions, that are one of the biggest killers and government across the world have been implementing such legislation as not allowing smoking in buildings or work areas, also through taxation, warnings on the packs of cigarettes and also providing support to people who wants to quit smoking. According to the WHO 2012 tobacco is a leading factor for premature mortality in Europe. Also the WHO suggests that smoking accounts 12-20 years of life lost and up to 21 % of deaths. It also shows that 24% of young people aged 15 years old smoke every week.
In England more than 80,000 premature deaths are caused by smoking (Department of health, 2012). Approximately 21% of adults smoke within England, this is over 8 million still smoke, almost two-thirds of current and ex-smokers say that they started smoking before 18 (Department of health, 2012). Also On the 6 April this year, all large shops in England will need to hide tobacco products from view in a drive to cut the number of smokers and protect young people, who are often the target of tobacco promotion. Sainsbury’s and many more companies have already been trialling hiding tobacco displays.
Other shops have just one month to find out if they are classified as a large shop, to plan how they are going to cover up their tobacco displays. The government and local authorities have launched quit kits to help people quitting and also opening help lines for support. Smokers are faced with many health problems with lung cancer and many other cancers been a big health risk due to what is in the cigarettes. Other health risks are coronary heart disease, heart attacks, stokes, respiratory problems such as chronic bronchitis, pneumonia and can worsen asthma.
Secondhand smoke comes from the tip of a lit cigarette and is the smoke that the smoker breathes out. People who breathe in secondhand smoke are at risk of the same health conditions as smokers, particularly lung cancer and heart disease. Their quality of life is affected with smokers more at risk of cancers and heart diseases, also they would be more prone to getting sick and also having to clear their throat in the morning due to been caught up. The third issue that I am going to discuss is not very open and not many people would like to discuss, mental health is a big issue that has to be addressed.
With one in four adults experiencing mental illness at some point in their lifetime and one in six experiencing symptoms at any one time. Mental health is the largest cause of disability in our society. They have been ? 22million to be inserted in to a pioneering programme to give children with mental health problems access to the best services in a wider range of places spent over the next three years to expand state-of-the-art psychological therapies and extend training for people working with youngsters outside of health settings, such as in schools or youth groups.
One in ten children aged 5-16 years has a clinically diagnosable mental health problem and, of adults with long-term mental health problems, half will have experienced their first symptoms before the age of 14. Self-harming and substance abuse are known to be much more common in children and young people with mental health disorders – with ten per cent of 15-16 year olds having self-harmed.
The facts and figures around Mental Health in the UK are alarming;
Almost 1 in 4 people will experience some kind of mental health problem in the course of a year, Mixed anxiety and depression is the most common mental disorder in Britain.
Also Women are more likely to have been treated for a mental health problem than men.
About 10% of children have a mental health problem at any one time.
Depression affects 1 in 5 older people.
Suicides rates show that British men are three times as likely to die by suicide as British women.
Self-harm statistics for the UK show one of the highest rates in Europe: 400 per 100,000 populations.
Only 1 in 10 prisoners has no mental disorder. (Mental health foundation, 2012).
The government has also injected 400 million to bring mental health up to the same treatment as patients would get if they were physically injured. This was in 2011 with many doctors just handing out tablets for such things as depression or eating disorders; this is helped by offering care services such as childline and other help lines.
All the above issues have affected the life expectancy with such issues as smoking nearly having life expectancy, although compared to the 19th and 20th Century peoples life expectancy was shockingly scary due to such infectious diseases as cholera, polio, diphtheria and other diseases along with poor housing, lack of nutrition, and no health care all affected life expectancy with a lower class individual living to her early twenties with a higher class women living to 45.
Although now with the advances in healthcare, housing and nutrition many people are still dying at a young age, this is due to cancers, coronary heart diseases and terminal illnesses. Today life expectancy is about, the environment you live in, lifestyle, gender, work, diet, poverty and poor housing. Throughout the years the life expectancy have rose although in some places throughout the UK it has not increased steadily with an estate in Glasgow with men living to 50. In 2008 an average males life expectancy reached 76. 4 years and a female’s life expectancy was 81. 3 years in northern Ireland. (Northern Ireland Executive, 2011).
All of the above has been a massive leap from the 19th and 20th century with over 30 years been added, this is due to the well structured health care, better housing and more information about nutrition. Even though many people may not have the standard of live which is expected to be normal, they may be living in poverty which would also affect live expectancy. Also we have seen that mothers and infants life expectancy have increased with more of than 99% for mothers and 90% for infants , compared to more than a half of infants dying in a 1000 births in the 19th and 20th Century.
The above issues such as alcohol, smoking, obesity, dental health, mental health, and an aging demographical have all influences such things as many health related problems and life expectancy. Within this assignment I have described the current patterns of ill health and how they are monitored and I have also compared historical and current features of public health.
Campbell, Denis. (2011). Experts call for 10% ‘fat tax’ on soft drinks to prevent obesity. Available: http://www. guardian. co. uk/society/2011/dec/21/sugary-soft-drinks-obesity-tax? CMP=twt_gu. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Department of Health. (2012). Healthy Lives, Healthy People; A call to action on obesity in England. Available: http://www. manchesterpublichealthdevelopment. org/mphds/download-files/pdf/chd/2011/DOH-Healthy%20Lives,%20Healthy%20People%20Report%202011. pdf. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Department of Health. (2011). Department calls for action on obesity. Available: http://www. dh. gov. uk/health/2011/10/call-to-action/. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Mental Health Foundation. (2012). mental health statistics. Available: http://www. mentalhealth. org. uk/help-information/mental-health-statistics/. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Northern Ireland executive. (2011). Recent changes in Northern Ireland life expectancy. Available: http://www. northernireland. gov. uk/index/media-centre/news-departments/news-dhssps/news-dhssps-february-archive-2011/news-dhssps-24012011-recent-changes-in. htm. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
World Health Organisation. (2010). 10 facts on obesity. Available: http://www. who. int/features/factfiles/obesity/en/. Last accessed 29th March 2012.
Hillendale Health describes a communicable disease as one that is passed from human to human through direct or indirect contact. Common ones include chicken pox, ringworm, influenza, scabies, lice, pinkeye and hepatitis. Prevention includes good hygiene skills, safe sex and using reputable sources for tattoos, piercing and blood transfusions. There are several things that cause a communicable disease and knowing the risk can help a person take measures to protect themselves and those they come into contact with. Bodily Fluid Exchange.
According to the Oregon Department of Health, communicable diseases can be spread through unprotected sex, sharing needles for drug use, blood transfusions, tattoos or piercings and bites from a child. Pregnant women can pass a disease to their children as well. Prevention of spreading communicable diseases through bodily fluids is achieved through hand washing, safe sex and using clean needles for drug use and tattoos and piercings. The most common communicable diseases spread through bodily fluids are HIV and Hepatitis B, C and D. Direct/Indirect Contact.
Read this article – Lifestyle Diseases
Contact with people suffering from a communicable disease, either directly or indirectly can cause the spread of that disease. Direct contact includes skin to skin, which can spread ringworm and scabies. Indirect contact refers to germs being spread through coughing, sneezing or spitting onto a person who then transfers the germs to their mouth, nose or eyes. The Oregon Department of Health says that good prevention practices include frequent hand washing, keeping hands off the face, and isolating a person who has a communicable disease.
The most common diseases that are spread through contact are the common cold, influenza and whooping cough. Airborne Germs Airborne germs are spread by being suspended in the air by the sick individual through a cough or sneeze and then inhaled by another person. The most common communicable diseases that are transmitted through airborne germs are tuberculosis, measles and chicken pox. Prevention methods include vaccinations and isolating a person who is ill to prevent them from spreading the disease to another person.
TREATMENT OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
Communicable diseases are spread from person to person via pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi. They can be common, short-lived disease like throat colds or chronic diseases like malaria and herpes. The form of treatment necessary for communicable disease depends on both the source and symptoms of the disease. However, treatment usually involves some form of rest, recuperation, medication or vaccine. Common There are numerous common communicable diseases, such as throat colds and the flu. They often produce symptoms like sore throat, runny nose, coughing, sneezing, headache, fever and nausea.
These can typically be treated with adequate rest and over-the-counter medication. Medication for common communicable diseases may include pain relievers like Tylenol as well as nasal decongestants, cough syrups, anti-nausea pills and throat drops. Common communicable diseases usually dissipate over the course of a few days or weeks. Chronic Chronic communicable diseases are severe and not usually spread from person to person via airborne pathogens. They may be spread via parasites, sexual contact or transmission of bodily fluids like blood.
Unlike throat colds or other common illnesses, chronic communicable diseases may last months or even a lifetime. Examples of chronic communicable disease include malaria, Lyme disease, diphtheria and hepatitis. Treatment for chronic communicable diseases usually involves some form of hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, prescription medication and intensive care. Vaccines One effective way to treat a communicable disease is by receiving a vaccine before your body becomes infected. Vaccines work by infecting your body with a weakened strain of the actual disease. Your body then produces antibodies to fight the disease.
Antibodies remain in the system after the weakened strain is gone and protect the body from later infections. Certain vaccines need only to be administered once, such as vaccines for mumps, measles, whooping cough and polio. Others, like the flu vaccine, should be taken annually. PRECAUTIONS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Communicable disease is caused by pathogenic organism which can be easily transmitted from one person to another person, either directly or indirectly. There are different kinds of communicable disease, so the precaution is also different but their are some common precaution which are useful for every communicable disease.
To be healthy and avoid every kind of disease, washing hands is the most important thing. Wash your hand with soap and water before and after doing activities and touching things which seems contaminated. And if you forgot to wash your hands or couldn’t find any resources of hand washing for eg; if you are walking in the street and have to do something but you couldn’t wash your hand than don’t touch your eyes, nose, mouth and ear with the hand. Those areas can be easily infectious with germs.
Try to avoid or limit eating outside. As everybody don’t have time to make food and eat at home daily so if you are eating outside than eat food which are fresh and contains all the nutrients in sufficient amount and less amount of fat or cholesterol.
Try to avoid or limit crowd. Airway disease can be easily transmitted from crowd. If someone is ill in the family than strictly avoid using items used by the family member like towel, linens, cloths, utensils, etc.
Make sure your child had taken all the immunization and if you felt he/she is ill than immediately contact physician. Remember don’t take chance by keeping your child for home observation.
CAUSES OF NON – COMUNICABLE DISESASE
Risk factors such as a person’s background; lifestyle and environment are known to increase the likelihood of certain non-communicable diseases. They include age, sex, genetics, exposure to air pollution, and behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity which can lead to hypertension and obesity, in turn leading to increased risk of many NCDs.  Most NCDs are considered preventable because they are caused by modifiable risk factors.
The WHO’s World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. These are raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and overweight.  Other factors associated with higher risk of NCDs include a person’s economic and social conditions, also known as the “social determinants of health. ” It has been estimated that if the primary risk factors were eliminated, 80% of the cases of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancers could be prevented.
Interventions targeting the main risk factors could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of disease worldwide. Efforts focused on better diet and increased physical activity have been shown to control the prevalence of NCDs. 
TREATMENT OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
More and more people are turning to exercise as a means of achieving long-term health. The World Health Organization has endorsed this concept. The best available evidence suggests that an employee fitness programme will result in decreased health-care costs, decreased absenteeism and increased productivity for the employer. Regular physical activity is also associated with lower mortality rates.
Appropriate physical activity may be a valuable tool in therapeutic regimens for the control and amelioration (rehabilitation) of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, congenital heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, end-stage renal disease, stress, anxiety and depression, etc.
Regular physical activity, independent of other factors, reduces the probability of coronary artery disease and early death. Patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease need more intensive preexercise evaluation than those not a risk, and those with known or suspected cardiovascular disease need the most intensive evaluation and follow-up. Participation in vigorous sports activities, such as jogging, swimming, tennis, etc. , helps to protect against the development of hypertension, even when other predisposing factors are present.
Several studies have been conducted on the use of exercise in the treatment of hypertension. Physical exercise also contributes to the control of body weight. Consideration of the metabolic abnormalities in patients with type II (adult onset) diabetes indicates that they would make excellent candidates for an exercise programme. Osteoporosis is an important health problem for the elderly. The best treatment available at present is prevention, and a high level of physical activity throughout life can result in a larger skeletal mass during old age.
PRECAUTIONS OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
Non communicable diseases do not occurred by an infection. Typically they are developed due to heredity, surroundings and behavior of an individual. Many of these diseases can be prevented to some extent. Individuals can prevent these diseases by having proper diet and exercise routines. They cannot be transferred from one human to another. Factors that can cause these diseases include abnormalities in genes, heredity problem, lifestyle and environment. Instructions Step 1 : Know the history of your family’s health. Many non communicable diseases are caused due to heredity.
While development of these diseases is not guaranteed by your family’s health history, it will just tell you to focus on what sort of the diseases. For example, if members of four immediate families suffer from cancer, you must take precaution to prevent this non communicable disease. If you are not aware with the history of your family’s health, ask your parents, your siblings or ask your other close family and know what type of non communicable diseases you are prone to. Step 2 You must take medical screenings regularly for non communicable diseases.
One must go for overall health screening once in a year as recommended by experts. For example, as recommended by the American College of the Physicians, all women when they attain an age of 50years must receive a yearly mammogram. However, women with high risk of breast cancer due to their family health history must receive mammograms at an age of 40. D. A Berry, conducted cancer study in 2005 stated that between 29 and 64 percent of a sharp drop in women breast cancer deaths in between 1991 and 2001 were not indirectly related to mammograms and the screenings received once a year.
Non communicable diseases can also be prevented by many other medical screenings. Heart screenings, cholesterol, a high blood pressure and many other medical screenings helped in saving the lives and it is an important way to avoid deaths that occur because of non-communicable diseases by the help of early detection. Step 3 Find any non communicable diseases which you feel you’re most at most risk for. It is most important to learn to prevent specific non communicable diseases which have made you at high risk which can be due to your lifestyle, your surroundings etc.
By having information, you can know many ways to prevent certain non communicable diseases. Non communicable diseases which include heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer are research in one place named as Harvard Medicine. It allows anyone to find conditions, causes, preventions tat can work for an individual and its website is –hms. harvard. edu/hms/research. asp. Step 4 Changes in diet can prove beneficial for your health and it may also help to prevent non communicable diseases. Massive differences can also be made even by small changes.
For example, increasing in intake of daily fruits and vegetables can significantly reduce higher risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke and other medical conditions. Step 5 You must avoid things which raise risk factors for certain non communicable diseases. If you smoke cigarettes every day you are at higher risk for cancer. Cancer. Having alcohol in excess can also higher your risk of these diseases. In order to prevent non communicable diseases you must take out elements from your life which increases the risk of non communicable diseases.